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Sumer Star

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http://ccwf.cc.utexas.edu/~hope/starlog.html Combined Sumerian Star Catalogue-Ur Calendar.doc -----------------------------------------------------------------------This catalogue is derived from BPO2. The Sumerian transliteration is in all-caps, and then the Akkadian is in italics. The English translation of the name is in quotes, followed by the modern star or constellation to which it refers. Next is any Sumerian words and their meanings. The following is a list of the original 48 of the 88 constellations that apply to this book and are basically the ones which are visible to the Northern Hemisphere as it would be for the ancients who did not travel to the Southern Hemisphere. Constellation Name Cancer Ursa Minor Ursa Major Argo Navis Other Names The Crab Little Bear, Lesser Sheepfold Great Bear, Greater Sheepfold The Ship Date on the Constellation Meridian Name See chapter two for further details March 15 Capricornus June 25 Sagitta The Sea Goat, Goat The Arrow Sept. 20 Aug. 30 April 20 Aquila The Eagle Aug. 30 Mar 15,25; Feb 25 Delphinus The Dolphin Sept. 15 Sum. AL.LUL, Akk. Alluttu, "The Crab"; Cancer. Sum. BIR, Akk. Kalitu, "The Kidney,” zeta Puppis, in ancient Argo Navis, constellation aligns with α Acubens, Arabic “claws” of Cancer 7410 B.C. Sum. DUMU.USH.É.MAH, Polaris (?) the north star or α Polaris in Ursa Minor, note Sum. Dumuzi, faithful son; e, house; mah, a priestly class, august. Sum. GÁN.ÙR(.RA) (GISH.GÁN.ÙR), Akk. Mashkakatu, "The Harrow" Heb. verb sadhadh, breakup or harrow the ground, till. Note: RA, Sumerian Re, “Sun, bright, Sun-god.” Sum. KA5.A, Akk. Shelebu, "The Fox,” Ursae Maioris (?). KAD, (the lofty) Mesopotamian / Sumerian, solar title as an uplifted hand with fingers erect. Egyptian hieroglyph shows two uplifted hands conjoined with a phonetic value of Ka. “King Ka,” Ka derived from the sign Kad or Kat, with the final d dropped as a derivation of the Egyptian hieroglyph. (Note Ka’a). A, house, RIT A, (House of Pharaoh). In Sumerian Myth, when Enki ate her children, Enlil and a fox act on Enki's behalf to call back Ninhursag in order to undo the damage. She joins with Enki again and bears eight new children, one to cure each of the wounds. Sum. MAR.GÍD.DA, Akk. Eriqqu, "The Wagon,” Ursa Major. Mar is a pictograph of a drill or borer, if derived from the Sumerian Mar sign for a drill. The Egyptian Mar means “hero,” pictured as the hieroglyph, sign of a drill, this same sign in Sumerian means “pierce, throw down, destroy,” like a Wild Bull. Sum. MAR.GÍD.DA.AN.NA, "The Wagon of Heaven,” Ursa Minor, Sum. An, heaven, literally “The One,” or One Lord. Other Names Date on the Meridian Sum. Á.MUSHEN, Akk. Erû, "The Eagle," Aquila; Sum. a, water, in; mushen, bird; α Altair, Arabic an-nasr at-ta’ir - an-nasr, the eagle, at-ta’ir, flying. In Kish, there is a Babylonian myth where the eagle and the serpent swore an oath to Shamash. Sum. SUHUR.MÁSH, Akk. suhurmashû/i>, "The Goat Fish,” Capricorn, Sum. Mashdagu, first month of the year; ha, fish, may; tur, child, young, weak, goat kid, α Giedi or Algedi, Arabic “The Kid.” Sum. SHAH, "The Pig," Delphinus, normally “The Dolphin.” Sum. KAK.SI.SÁ, Akk. Shukudu, "The Arrow,” α Canis Maioris, Sagitta, α Sham, Arabic “Arrow.” Notes: The cult of Dumuzi the Shepherd (Uruk, fourth millennium BC) "comprises both happy celebration of the marriage of the god with Inanna (who, originally, it seems, was the goddess of the communal storehouse) and bitter laments when he dies as the dry heat of summer yellows the pastures and lambing, calving, and milking come to an end.” - Thorkild Jacobsen, The Treasures of Darkness "The predynastic Egyptians worshipped the feminine principle, the great mother goddess [Tuart] represented by the seven stars of Ursa Major and her child Sirius the dog star, or Set. Sirius was also represented by the same symbol as his mother, whom he is supposed to have fecundated." - Peter Tompkins, The Magic of Obelisks Sirius is in Canis Major. Lepus The Twins The Hare or Rabbit Canis Major Canis Minor The Great Dog The Little Dog Gemini See chapter three for further details Feb. 20 Sagittarius Jan. 25 Lyra Feb. 15 Mar. 1 Sum. BAN (GISH.BAN), Akk. Qashtu, "The Bow,” τ tau, δ delta, σ sigma, and ε epsilon (Arabic Adhara, the virgins) Canis Maioris. Sum. DAR.LUGAL, "The Rooster,” Canis Minor (?), Sum. lugal, king. Sum. KAK.SI.SÁ, Akk. Shukudu, "The Arrow,” α (Sirius, the dog star, Heb. sar or seir, prince) Canis Maioris, Sagitta, α Sham, Arabic “Arrow.” Note: Saru (Semitic) a temple or palace sign, which is the source of the Egyptian name serekh. Sum. MASH.TAB.BA.GAL.GAL, Akk. tu'amu rabûtu, "The Great Twins,” α (Castor) and β (Pollux) Geminorium, Sum. mashtabba, twins, gal, big. Note: GI-TAB, Tab or Dab, “two,” or Twain or Double, check out “Twins.” Sum. MASH.TAB.BA.TUR.TUR, "The Little Twins.” γ zeta (Arabic, Alhena or Al Henah) and λ lamda Geminorium, Sum. tur, child, young, weak, goat kid. Note: GI-TAB, Tab or Dab, “two,” or Twain or Double, check out “Twins.” Other sources show TUR, a tomb, defined as “dig, dwelling, cave, fold.” Sum. TIR.AN.NA, Akk. Manzât, "The Rainbow,” Sum. An, heaven, literally “The One,” or One Lord. Ara Draco and Corona Australis The Archer The Lyre or Harp (or Vulture) The Altar The Dragon; The Southern Crown Aug. 20 Aug. 15 July 20 July 20 Aug. 15 Sum. dLAMMA, α (Arabic Vega, eagle, vulture) Lyrae. Sum. PA.BIL.SAG, Sagittarius, Sum. sag, head, σ sigma (Nunki) an untranslated ancient Babylon proper name, as a heavenly counterpart to their city Ridu (Eridu), sacred to the god Ea, in Akkadian the constellation is called Nunki “The Prince of the Earth.” Assyro-Babylonian Mythology calls Pabilsag - god of the antediluvian city Larak, see notes in paragraphs below about other names associated with Ninurta. PA-RIN of the (Sun-)Hawk; Bah, Pah verses Bak, Pak, Rin (Sumerian ring, enclosure, dwelling place), the symbol looks like a square. Note: PA, (or XU) Hawk, The (Sun-)Hawk (line), of the (Sun-)Hawk race. SAG, The Seer, or Diviner, The Lofty Kad, the tablet (seal) of the One Lord, The Gut (Goth),” Sagara in its fuller form. Sum. ÙZ , Akk. Enzu, "The She-Goat,” Lyra, note to see α Capella (Latin “little she-goat”) in Auriga. Note: Assyrian-Babylonian myth has the creature called Anzu, connected with Sharur under Scorpio (also see the Canaanite Heyan aka Kotharu-Khasis and the Hittite Ayas). In Assyro-Babylonian Mythology: Ninurta (shares some characteristics with Ningrisu) - Chamberlain of the Anunnaki, the war god, the champion of the land. He is the child of Ellil and Mami. He was born in Ekur, Ellil's temple in Ekur. He is responsible for some small scale irrigation. He has a bow and arrow, sometimes they are poisoned. He also carries the mace, Sharur, which can act as a messenger between Ninurta and other beings (notably Ea). He can marshal the Seven of Battle, who can generate whirlwinds. He bound the Mountain of Stones in his fury, conquered the Anzu with his weapon and slew the bullman inside the Sea. (Dalley p. 204). After the Tablet of Destinies was stolen, Belit-ili, at Ea's advice, instructed him to kill Anzu. Initially his assault was futile, but Sharur relayed advise from Ea to him, which, when it was carried out allowed him to slay Anzu in a great onslaught. He recovered the Tablet of Destinies for Ellil. Nissaba performs a purification ceremony on him and he receives the following new names and shrines: Duku - 'holy mound' in Sumerian, Hurabtil - an Elamite god, Shushinak - patron god of the Elamite city Susa, Lord of the Secret, Pabilsag - god of the antediluvian city Larak, Nin-Azu - god of Eshunna, Ishtaran - god of Der, Zababa -warrior god of Kish, Lugalbanda - Gilgamesh's father, Lugal-Marada - patron god of Marad, Warrior Tishpak - similar to Nin- Azu, Warrior of Uruk, Lord of the Boundary-Arrow, Panigara - a warrior god, and Papsukkal - vizier of the great gods. Taurus Orion Auriga Monoceros The Bull (Pleiades & Hyades) The Hunter The Charioteer The Shepherd The Unicorn See chapter four for further details Jan. 15 Scorpius Jan. 25 Jan. 10 Feb. 20 Sum. EN.ME.SHÁR.RA, γ zeta (no name) and ο omicron (Arabic Atik, collarbone) Persei with, perhaps, the northern stars of Taurus, Sumerian en, spiritual head of the temple, lord, me, universal decrees of divine authority, shar, whole. Note: RA, Sumerian Re, “Sun, bright, Sun-god.” In AssyroBabylonian Mythology we find Enmesharra - as an Underworld god, who was possibly slain by Ellil (Enlil) - Sumerian for "wind/storm-god". Sum. GÀM, Akk. gamlu, "The Crook," Auriga. Sum. GIGIR (GISH.GIGIR), Akk. narkabtu, "The Chariot," Auriga is “The Charioteer,” others call it “The Shepherd,” refer below to Orion. Sum. GU4.AN.NA, "The Bull of Heaven," Taurus, Sum. gud, bull, also ninda, food, bull, a measure, funnel of a seed-plow, An, heaven, literally “The One,” or One Lord. In Sumerian Myth, Ereshkigal's husband Gugalana, was the Bull of Heaven. Sum. dIMIN.BI, Akk. ilu sibitti, "The Seven Gods," The deities of MUL.MUL (the Pleiades). Note: Assyro-Babylonian Myth shows Nergal (as Erra) in command of the Sebitti, seven warriors (gods) who are also (in the sky) the Pleiades, they aid in his killing of noisy, over-populous people and animals. He rallies them when he feels the urge for war, and calls Ishum to light the way. They prefer to be used in war instead of waiting while Erra kills by disease. They were children of Anu and the Earth-mother, who gave them fearsome and lethal destinies. Sum. MUL.MUL, "The Stars," Akk. zappu, "The Bristle," The Pleiades. Sum. LI.DUR SIPA.ZI.AN.NA, "The Navel of the True Shepherd of Anu,” Probably α (Arabic Betelgeuse, “house of the twins”) Orionis, Sum. sipad, shepherd, Sum. An, heaven, literally “The One,” or One Lord. Sum. SIPA.ZI.AN.NA, KK., Akk. shidallu, "The True Shepherd of Anu," Orion, Sum. sipad, shepherd, Sum. An, heaven, literally “The One,” or One Lord; note: Sum. sir-namsipad-inanna-ka, hymns of shepherdship of (the goddess) Inanna. Notes regarding: Orion SHA, The Shepherd means “protect,” “protector,” and also “shepherd,” and “shining.” One Sumerian ruler was shepherd-king Dumuzi (the Biblical Tammuz) who reigned in Erech...early in the third millennium BC. Ophiuchus Serpends Caput Serpends Cauda Hercules The Scorpion July 20 The Serpent Bearer The Head and Tail of the Snake The Strongman July 25 June 30 Aug. 5 July 25 Sum. GÍR.TAB, Akk. zuqaqipu, "The Scorpion," Scorpius, ziqit GÍR.TAB "The Sting of the Scorpion," is identified with SHAR.GAZ and SHAR.UR4 as seen below. ϑ theta (Sum. Girtab) identified with Sargas. Note: GI-TAB, Tab or Dab, “two,” or Twain or Double, check out “Twins.” In Assyro-Babylonian Myth we find aqrabuamelu (girtablilu) - scorpion-man, the guardians of the gates of the underworld. Their "terror is awesome" and their "glance is death". They guard the passage of Shamash. They appraise Gilgamesh and speak with him. Sum. LI9.SI4, α (Gr. Antares, against Mars, Arabic, “The Wounding”) Scorpii. Sum. SHAR.GAZ, λ lamda (Arabic Shaula, the stinger) or υ upsilon (Arabic Lesath, spot) Scorpii, Sum. shar, whole. Sum. SHAR.UR4, λ lamda (Arabic Shaula, the stinger) or υ upsilon (Arabic Lesath, spot) Scorpii, Sum. shar, whole. In Assyro-Babylonian myth, a mace, Sharur, advises Ninurta on how to defeat the creature (Anzu). (See also the Canaanite Heyan aka Kothar-u-Khasis and the Hittite Ayas). Also see Sum. ÙZ , Akk. Enzu, "The She-Goat,” under Lyra. Notes regarding Scorpio Sum. SHAR -U -GIN, translated: Sharu-Gin or “The Universal Lord, The Ruler.” Shar, U and Gin are well-known Sumerian syllabic signs, thus these three inscriptions from the tomb of the Predynastic Pharaoh Gin, Sha-Gin or Sharu-Gin at Abydos, the tomb of himself and his Queen, with his solar title of Kad – and we have seen that “Sargon” was a famous Sun-worshipper. “Sharu-GIN, of Uri (or Akkadu) Land.” “Shar-GIN, The Great Khati of …. Land.” “Shar-um-GIN, The Gut (or Goth) of Agdu Land.” Sum. shar, whole, um, overlord, GIN, ruler. SHAR-GA-NI, King GANI. Taurus Notes: But here also are the bull god Ningublaga, city god of Kiabrig; the bull god and moon god Nanna in Ur; and, in Kullab, Ninsuna, 'Lady of the wild cows', with her husband Lugalbanda, the father of Gilgamesh. Assyro-Babylonian Mythology: notes regarding the Seven Gods Pleiades and the Sebitti. Anu - Sumerian for "heaven", a sky god, father and king of the gods, son of Anshar and Kishar, lived in the third heaven. The Eanna in Uruk was dedicated both to him and consort. His first consort was Antu. They produced the Anunnaki - the underworld gods, and the utukki - the seven evil demons. His second consort was Innina (Ishtar). He is a god of monarchs and is not friendly to the common people, "King of the Igigi," assigned the sky as his domain in 'Atrahasis'. His 'kishru's (shooting stars) have awesome strength. He has the ability that anything he puts into words, becomes reality. He is Niudimmud's (Ea's) father. He calls Adapa to account for breaking the wing of the South Wind, and offers him the food and drink of eternal life after Dumuzi and Gizzida speak on Adapa's behalf. He agrees to send the Bull of Heaven after Gilgamesh on Ishtar's behalf, if she has made sure that the people of Uruk are properly provisioned for seven years. He decrees that either Gilgamesh or Enkidu must die for the slaying of Humbaba and the Bull of Heaven. He sends Kakka to Kurnugi to tell Ereshkigal to send a messenger to receive a gift from him. When Anzu stole the Tablet of Destinies from Ellil, he called for one of the gods to slay Anzu and thereby greatly increase his reputation. He gave Marduk the four winds to play with. He made a whirlwind and a flood wave and stirred up Tiamat on purpose. When Tiamat's retaliation for Apsu's death was discovered, Anshar sent him on a peace mission to her, but he returned unsuccessfully. He helps form a princely shrine for Marduk prior to his battle with Tiamat, and gives him the Anu-power of decreeing fates, such that his word is law. He and Earth father the Sebitti. He gives them fearsome fates and powers and puts them at Erra's command, to aid in killing noisy, over populous people and animals. (See also the Hittite Anus Symbol: sacred shine surmounted by the divine horned cap. Sacred number: 60 Astrological region: heavenly equator Sacred animal: the heavenly Bull. Notes about the Seven Heavens "In the Book of Enoch it was the archangel Uriel ('God is my light') who showed Enoch the secrets of the Sun (solstices and equinoxes, 'six portals' in all) and the 'laws of the Moon' (including intercalation), and the twelve constellations of the stars, 'all the workings of heaven'. And in the end of the schooling, Uriel gave Enoch - as Shamash and Adad had given Enmeduranki - 'heavenly tablets', instructing him to study them carefully and note 'every individual fact' therein. Returning to Earth, Enoch passed this knowledge to his old son, Methuselah." - Zecharia Sitchin, When Time Began The knowledge granted Enoch included: "All the workings of heaven, earth and the seas, and all the elements, their passages and goings and the thunderings of the thunder, and of the Sun and the Moon; the goings and changings of the stars; the seasons, years, days, and hours."The Book of the Secrets of Enoch. According to the The Book of the Secrets of Enoch, "it seems that when the prophet Enoch was 'taken up', he saw the air and then the ether. Then he reached the first heaven, where 'two hundred angels rule the stars' and where he saw a sea 'greater than the earthly sea'. "The second heaven was gloomy. In the third heaven, he saw the Tree of Life, with four streams, of honey, milk, oil, and wine, flowing from its roots. The Place of the Righteous is in this heaven and the Terrible Place where the wicked are tortured. There was also the 'place on which God rests when he comes into Paradise'. "In the fourth heaven, he saw luminaries, wondrous creatures, and the Host of the Lord. There were many 'hosts' in the fifth, and in the sixth he saw 'bands of angels who study the revolutions of the stars'. Finally, in the seventh heaven he saw great angels and he got a distant glimpse of the Lord on His Throne." - Richard L. Thompson, Alien Identities "I know a man in Christ who fourteen years ago was caught up to the third heaven ... was caught up to Paradise. He heard inexpressible things, things that man is not permitted to tell." 2 Corinthians 12:2-4 (the apostle Paul describing his own experience) "Enoch's third heaven...seems very similar to the region known as Ilavrta-varsa, which is described in the Fifth Canto of the Bhagavata Purana. Thus, in Ilavrta-varsa there are four gigantic trees, and four rivers flow from their roots, including a river of honey. There is also a city called Brahmapuri, which is visited by Lord Brahma and which may correspond to the 'place on which God rests when he comes into Paradise'." The Venerable Bede, an eighth-century English theologian and historian, wrote that "the seven heavens are (1) the Air, (2) the Ether, (3) Olympus, (4) the Element of Fire, (5) the Firmament, (6) the Angelical Region, and (7) the Realm of the Trinity." "According to the Fifth Canto of the Bhagavata Purana, Brahmapuri and the residences of eight prominent Devas [administrators of the Universe] are situated on the top of a mountain in Ilavrta-varsa called Meru, and therefore Mount Meru corresponds to the Greek Olympus. Thus, if Ilavrta-varsa corresponds to Enoch's third heaven, then it is also reasonable to say that this third heaven corresponds to the Greek Olympus." - Richard L. Thompson, Alien Identities Aries Cassiopeia Eridanus Perseus The Ram, The Lamb The Queen, Enthroned Woman The River, The Celestial River The Hero, The Breaker See chapter five for further details Dec. 10 Libra Nov. 20 Crux Jan. 5 Lupus Dec. 25 Corona Borealis Sum. GABA SHU.GI, "The Chest of the Old Man," Probably δ delta Persei (no name). Note: SHU, the island sign. Sum. GÌR.MESH SHU.GI, "The Feet of the Old Man," Probably β (Arabic Algol, head of the demon) Persei, this star aligns with 2000 B.C., also know as “The Evil Spirit,” Sum. mesh, feet. Note: SHU, the island sign. Sum. GISH.KAK dEN.ME.SHÁR.RA, "The Cart Pole of EN.ME.SHÁR.RA," (seen above in Taurus) Probably γ zeta Persei (no name). Note: RA, Sumerian Re, “Sun, bright, Sun-god.” In Assyro-Babylonian Mythology seen also in Taurus is Enmesharra - as an Underworld god, who was possibly slain by Ellil (Enlil) - Sumerian for "wind/storm-god". Sum. LÚ.HUN.GÁ, Akk. argu, "The Hired Man," Aries, Sum. lu, man. Sum. SHU.GI, Akk. shibu, "The Old Man," Perseus. Note: SHU, the island sign. The Scales, Balance The Southern Cross June 20 May 10 The Wolf, Victim or a Beast of some sort. The Northern Crown June 20 June 30 Sum. BAL.TÉSH.A, Akk. kakkab balti, "Star of Dignity," Corona Borealis (?),α (Gemma or Alphecca, the gem, Arabic, the brightest, the shining), SHA, The Shepherd means “protect,” “protector,” and also “shepherd,” and “shining.” A, house, RIT A, (House of Pharaoh). Sum. UR.BAR.RA, Akk. barbaru, "The Wolf,” α Trianguli, note that Lupus is “The Wolf.” UR, the spiked Club-sign. BARA, of the House of the Pharaoh, Bar or Bara, Paraa or Egypt. “Pharaoh,“ from Sum. house-sign, Bar or Par, “The Great House”; Sum. Bar, Bara, “great house or palace or temple.” Pharaoh (Heb. par’oh) “Great House,” in Egypt. “Per-o.” Also the Akk. word pr and SAG.AZ = Apiru, Habiru, Hebrew). Note: RA, Sumerian Re, “Sun, bright, Sun-god.” Sum. UR.IDIM, "The Mad Dog," Lupus. UR, the spiked Club-sign. Sum. ZI.BA.AN.NA, Akk. zibanitu, "The Scales" (Akk.), Libra, Sum. An, heaven, literally “The One,” or One Lord. Pisces and the Bands Cetus Andromeda Cepheus The Fish The Whale, Sea Monster or Leviathan The Princess or Chained Maiden The (Crowned) King, Royal Branch See chapter six for further details Nov. 10 Virgo Nov. 30 Coma Berenices The Maiden, The Virgin Berenices’s Hair Nov. 10 Centaurus The Centaur May 20 Oct. 15 Bootes The Herdsman (Arcturus) June 15 Sum. AGA dA-nim, "The Crown of Anu.” Sum. APIN, Akk. epinnu, "The Plow," Triangulum Boreale with γ gamma (Almach or Almak) Andromedae, Sum. apin, plow. Nippur with Enlil, wind god and god of the hoe, and his son Ninurta, god of the thundershowers and of the plow. Under the local name of Ningirsu, Ninurta was worshipped also in Girsu to the southeast. Sum. KA.MUSH.Ì.KÚ.E, Akk. Pashittu, β beta (Arabic Mirachwhich, girdle) Andromedae, Sum. ka, mouth, mush, snake, mushen, bird, ku, to eat, determiner, e, house. KAD, (the lofty) Mesopotamian / Sumerian, solar title as an uplifted hand with fingers erect. Egyptian hieroglyph shows two uplifted hands conjoined with a phonetic value of Ka. “King Ka,” Ka derived from the sign Kad or Kat, with the final d dropped as a derivation of the Egyptian hieroglyph. (Note Ka’a). Also MUSH-SUR, of Mushur (Egypt), as the word-sign for “Egypt” in the form of Mush-ur or Mush-Sir, written by two signs of the great Serpent (Mush or Sir) and an Insect (Mush or Sur). Sum. LU.LIM, Akk. lulimu, "The Stag," Andromeda, Sum. lu, man. Sum. SIM.MAH, Akk. shinunutu, "The Swallow," Western fish of Pisces, Sum. mah, a priestly class, august, ε epsilon Albali is the most western star in Aquarius and a Arabic word for “swallower.” The sign picturing a loop of cord, in Egyptian “loop, circle, ring,” and secondarily through its sense of enclosure “great multitude,” possibly the Sumerian sign Hap (the source of the English “Heap”) and its Akkadian value of Shinu is the source of the Egyptian name and phonetic value of Shenu for the cartouche or surround for royal names. Sum. UD.KA.DU8.A, "The Demon with the Gaping Mouth," Cygnus and part of Cepheus, Sum. ka, mouth, a, water or in. KAD, (the lofty) Mesopotamian / Sumerian, solar title as an uplifted hand with fingers erect. Egyptian hieroglyph shows two uplifted hands conjoined with a phonetic value of Ka. “King Ka,” Ka derived from the sign Kad or Kat, with the final d dropped as a derivation of the Egyptian hieroglyph. (Note Ka’a). A, house, RIT A, (House of Pharaoh). In Assyro-Babylonian myth, seven evil demons of the utukki, are the ugallu-demon, gallu-demons - can frequently alter their form. May 25 May 15 Sum. AB.SÍN, "The Furrow," the star α Spica (Latin spica, ear of wheat (grain), ancient “The Branch”) in Virgo, Sum. apsin, furrow, a trench or wrinkle, ab, cow. Sum. A.EDIN, Akk. Erua, γ gamma (no name) Comae Berenices (?) and possibly others, Sum. a, water or in. Sum. EN.TE.NA.BAR.HUM, Akk. habasiranu, Centaurus, Sum. enten, winter (Sept/Oct Feb/Mar), en, spiritual head of the temple, lord, ishum, one. BARA, of the House of the Pharaoh, Bar or Bara, Paraa or Egypt. “Pharaoh,“ from Sum. house-sign, Bar or Par, “The Great House”; Sum. Bar, Bara, “great house or palace or temple.” Pharaoh (Heb. par’oh) “Great House,” in Egypt. “Per-o.” Also the Akk. word pr and SAG.AZ = Apiru, Habiru, Hebrew). Sum. HÉ.GÁL-a-a , Akk. kakkab nushi, "Star of Abundance," Part of Coma Berenices (?), Sum. gal, big. Note: -a-a or -A-A, The Great.” In Assyro-Babylonian Myth, one of the many names tha Anshar gave to Marduk after defeating Tiamat was Hegal. Sum. SHUDUN, Akk. niru, "The Yoke," Boötes. Sum. SHU.PA, Boötes, PA-RIN, of the (Sun-)Hawk; Bah, Pah verses Bak, Pak, Rin (Sumerian ring, enclosure, dwelling place), the symbol looks like a square. Note: PA, (or XU) Hawk, The (Sun-)Hawk (line), of the (Sun-)Hawk race. Note: SHU, the island sign. Aquarius Piscis Austrinus Pegasus Cygnus The Water Bearer The Southern Fish The Winged Horse The Swan (Northern Cross) See chapter seven for further details Oct. 10 Leo Oct. 10 Hydra Oct. 20 Crater Sept. 10 Corvus Sum. ANSHE.KUR.RA, Akk. sisû, "The Horse," Pegasus, Sum. kur, mountain. nether-world, kurra, mountains. Kur also called Syria. The peoples who lived to the west of Sumer, the barbarous, illiterate, and savage tribes (Sumerian view point) who inhabited the Syrian and Arabian deserts, were generally called Martu. They were the ancestors of the Amuru who ranged across much of the northern, central, and eastern Arabian deserts.” (Note: Muru = Amorite, Heb. ‘emori). Note: RA, Sumerian Re, “Sun, bright, Sun-god.” Sumerian myth: Kramer and Maier postulated that Enki was once known as En-kur, lord of the underworld, which either contained or was contained in the Abzu. He did struggle with Kur as mentioned in the prelude to "Gilgamesh, Enkidu, and the Underworld", and presumably was victorious and thereby able to claim the title "Lord of Kur" (the realm). Sum. ASH.GÁN, Akk. ikû, "The Field," α alpha (Markab, horse’s shoulder), β beta (in Aquarius, Arabic Scheat, shin) and γ gamma (Arabic Algenib, the side) Pegasi with α alpha Andromedae, Sum. ashag, field. ASH, Babylonian Ash-nar (-tum) or Ash-lal (-tum) as the l and r are interchangeable, where tum means “the exalted.” Sargon’s Queen, the Lady Ash (Ash-Nini), Tomb Inscriptions at Abydos deciphered. Sum. GU.LA, "Great," Aquarius. Sum. KU6, nunu, "The Fish," Piscis Austrinus, α Fomalhaut (Arabic, fish’s mouth). Note: -a-a or -A-A NUN-HU, The Great Sea-Lord. Urash was the First Phoenician Dynasty for “Sea Lord,” the sign of “the great Fish” or “Sea Serpent of the Deep.” In the Egyptian standard he calls himself “The Great Sea Lord of the Lands of the Seven Seas.” Nanshe, goddess of fish. Sum. UD.KA.DU8.A, "The Demon with the Gaping Mouth," Cygnus and part of Cepheus, Sum. ka, mouth, a, water or in. KAD, (the lofty) Mesopotamian / Sumerian, solar title as an uplifted hand with fingers erect. Egyptian hieroglyph shows two uplifted hands conjoined with a phonetic value of Ka. “King Ka,” Ka derived from the sign Kad or Kat, with the final d dropped as a derivation of the Egyptian hieroglyph. (Note Ka’a). A, house, RIT A, (House of Pharaoh). The Lion The Sea Serpent The Cup The Crow or Raven April 10 April 20 April 25 May 10 Sum. LUGAL, Akk. sharru, "The King," α alpha (Latin Regulus, Gr. Basiliskos, little king) Leonis, Sum. lugal, king. In Assyro-Babylonian myth, Sharru - god of submission. Sum. MUSH, "The Snake," Hydra. Also MUSHSUR, of Mushur (Egypt), as the word-sign for “Egypt” in the form of Mush-ur or Mush-Sir, written by two signs of the great Serpent (Mush or Sir) and an Insect (Mush or Sur). Sum. UGA(.MUSHEN), Akk. aribu, "The Raven," δ delta (Arabic Algorab, raven’s wing, also called Minchir al Gorab, The Raven’s Piercing or Tearing To Pieces) in Corvus, mushen, bird. Sum. UR.GU.LA, "The Lion," Leo. UR, the spiked Club-sign. Note: "According to the Assyrian references to the wisdom of Adapa, he composed a book of sciences titled U.SAR d ANUM d ENLILA - 'Writings regarding Time; from divine Anu and divine Enlil'. Adapa, thus, is credited with writing Mankind's first book of astronomy and the calendar." - Zecharia Sitchin, When Time Began. Ea was the later Akkadian name for Enki, the chief god of the Sumerian city of Eridu. Ea was called the "fish of heaven" and Oannes (fish-man apkulla), the Greek form of Ea, was half man, half fish and taught mankind writing and math. Other Items related to stars and planets. Sum. dAMAR.UD, Akk. dMarduk, Jupiter. Sum. AN.TA.SUR.RA, Akk. sariru, "Flashing," probably a meteor, Sum. barbar, flashing. Note: RA, Sumerian Re, “Sun, bright, Sun-god.” Sum. AN.TA.SHUB.SHUB.BA, "Falling from Above," probably a meteorite, Sum. shublugal, a lower class group. Sum. BURANUN, Akk. Purattu, "The Euphrates," Sum. buranun, Euphrates river. Sum. DINGIR.GUB.BA.MESH, "The Standing Gods," Sum. dingir, god, dingirenek, the gods, gub, to stand, mesh, feet. Sum. DINGIR.KU.A.MESH, "The Sitting (?) Gods," Sum. dingir, god, dingirenek, the gods, ku, to eat, determiner, garru, set, mesh, feet. A, house, RIT A, (House of Pharaoh). Sum. EN.GISHGAL.AN.NA, Jupiter, Sumerian en, spiritual head of the temple, lord, An, heaven, literally “The One,” or One Lord. Sum. ESH4.DAR, Akk. Ishtar, Venus, Sum. eresh, queen, mistress. Ishtar (earlier Estar), her Akkadian name, is related to that of the South Arabian (male) deity 'Ashtar' and to that of the Syrian goddess Astarte (Biblical Ashtoreth), with whom she was undoubtedly connected. Sum. É.TÙR, Akk. tarbasu, "The Cattle Pen," Sum. e, house; tur, child, young, weak, goat kid, sagtur, pen of the inside, birth house of the inside, womb. Sum. GAL, Akk. rabbu, rabû, "The Great," seen also as GAL.GAL, Sum. gal, big, Akk. rabutu, the great. Sum. GU4.UD, Akk. shihtu, "Jumping," Mercury, Sum. GU4 is “The Bull” in “The Bull of Heaven,” also gud, bull. Sum. IDIGNA, Akk. Idiglat, "The Tigris." Sum. dIM.DUGUD.MUSHEN, Akk. Anzû, "The Anzû Bird,” Sum. imdugud, heavy rain, slingstone, ball of clay, thunderbird, hail storm, mushen, bird. Sum. IM.SHU.RIN.NA, Akk. tinuru, "The Oven,” PA-RIN, of the (Sun-)Hawk; Bah, Pah verses Bak, Pak, Rin (Sumerian ring, enclosure, dwelling place), the symbol looks like a square. Note: SHU, the island sign. Sum. LUL.LA, Akk. sarru, "False," probably not a real star. Sum. dNIN.KILIM, Akk. shikkû/i>, "The Mongoose," Sum. nin, lady, lord. Sargon’s Queen, the Lady Ash (Ash-Nini), Tomb Inscriptions at Abydos deciphered. The Goddess Inanna or Ishtar was the most important female deity of ancient Mesopotamia at all periods. Her Sumerian name Inanna is probably derived from a presumed Nin-ana, 'Lady of Heaven', it also occurs as Innin. The sign for Innana's name (the ring-post) is found in the earliest written texts. Akk. tultu, “The Worm.” Sumerian syllable um or “overlord.” MA = my or me. GIN, Ruler Reads -Uman-ash lu-gal-uru Translation: -- The One Lord, The great hero, Sumerian pictograph of Uru, meaning “Guard,” uri-mush. Uri-Mush. Sumerian ME -- Egyptian MA’AT The Sumerians believed that Inanna brought from her father, in the case represented as Enlil, the Lord of the Gods, the fundamental requirements of human life and civilization, immutable manifestations of the divine will which were at the root of Sumerian society. These divinely inspired concepts were called me and include the Kingship and the divine, truth, law, rejoicing, the crafts, and a host of others. The key to the Egyptian world was represented by the concept ma’at, a term which is elusive and which, like the Sumerian me resists precise translation. Ma’at is order, balance, the harmony of the universe, a discipline weighing of many elements in a coherent whole; Ma’at is also truth, for truth and order, in cosmic or universal terms, must be identical. The hieroglyph for Ma’at is a delicate, adolescent girl, naked but for a single feather in her hair. In the Egyptian creation myths the process began when the Creator lifts Ma’at to his lips, and kissing her, thus the universe is born. In my research during the Middle Kingdom 12th Dynasty King Amenemhet III (2000-1970 B.C.); the king is “the shepherd” of the people; ma’at, “justice, right.” The Beginning of Calendars In the Bible, time was reckoned solely on astronomical observations. The early Chaldean and Egyptian astrologers became quite learned in the movements of astronomical bodies. This made an impact on the Jewish calendar. From the earliest times the sun and moon were determinants of periods: days, months and years. The seven-day week is of Semitic origin. The Babylonians and Assyrians bound their week to the lunar cycle, corresponding to the four phases of the moon, and began anew with each new moon. The biblical week had its origin in the seven-day creation account and ran consecutively in a free-week system irrespective of lunar or solar cycles. The Egyptian week had ten days. There are no records of the people of the pre-Flood era or the patriarchal period observing a “sabbath,” until Exodus 16:23 which occurs in the next Age of Aries. Month is a synonym for moon. Apparently all ancient people worshipped the moon. They also measured time by it, because of its regular cycles. The Arabic word for moon means “the measurer,” and the Egyptian moon god Thoth was the god of measure. Even apostate Jews at times worshipped the moon along with other heavenly bodies. A Year in the OT calendar contained two concurrent years: The sacred year (Hebrew-instituted by Moses after the Exodus), has its beginning in the spring with the month Nisan. It consists of 12 or 13 lunar months of 29 ½ days each. The civil year (Jewish-which claims a more remote antiquity from Creation), beginning in the fall with Tishri. It beginning traditionally took place in autumn 3760 B.C. The Babylonians and Egyptians devised the intercalary month in order to reconcile the lunar and solar years. The Jewish leap years in their Metonic cycle of nineteen years were fixed, adding an intercalary month to the third, sixth, ninth, eleventh, fourteenth, seventeenth, and nineteenth years (seven times in 19 years). If, on the sixteenth of the month Nisan, the Sun had not reached the vernal equinox, the month was declared to be the second Adar (Veador) and the following on Nisan. If the Hebrew calendar is the true starting date, then Adam’s Fall from Eden began in this Age of Taurus around 3,760 B.C., then with Noah to the Flood would have occurred in the Age of Aries around the year 2,104 B.C. with Shem’s posterity. It is hard to imagine this to be true after reading the first three chapters of this book and also what you are about to read. 1 “The Hebrew Calendar, according to tradition, started with the Creation, at a moment 3,760 years and 3 months before the beginning of the Christian era. To find the year in the Hebrew calendar, we must add 3,760 to the date in the Gregorian calendar. The year 1985 A.D. for example would be the year 5,745 according to the Hebrew calendar. The Islamic Calendar began with Muhammad’s flight from Mecca to Medina, which took place in A.D. 622. The Chinese Calendar begins with 2,637 B.C., the year when the legendary Emperor Huang-Ti supposedly invented it. The earliest date known in the Egyptian Calendar corresponds to 4,236 B.C. in terms of our present-day system. The Egyptians were probably the first people to adopt a predominantly solar calendar. They noted that the Dog Star, Sirius (see Canis Major), reappeared in the eastern sky just before sunrise after several months of invisibility. They also discovered that the annual flood of the Nile River came soon after Sirius reappeared. They used this event to fix their calendar, and came to recognize a year of 365 days, made up of 12 months each 30 days long, and an extra dividend of five days added at the end. But they did not allow for the extra fourth of a day, and their calendar slowly drifted into error.” 1 The World Book Encyclopedia "CALENDAR" In our present day calendar we use 365 ¼ days in a year, the extra day is made up every four years, called leap year on February 29th. The Hebrew Calendar The Hebrew calendar was an important tool to the ancient Hebrews. Not only did it structure their religious year, setting the holy days of festival and feast (Heb. mo’edh, an assembling, hagh, dance, or pilgrimage, see page 6 for more detail), but it also structured the agricultural efforts of the society. Each month was known for certain weather conditions which, in turn, indicated times for planting and harvesting of various crops, much in the same way as today. Before the Exile, the months were usually referred to by the agricultural activity which they represented. After the exile, though, the Babylonian name of the month was more often used. The early Israelites thus designated their months by names that they borrowed from the Canaanites or Phoenicians, which has been confirmed by the Talmud, and their origin was close to nature, as is seen from their derivations. Month Name Abib Ziv Sivan Tammuz Biblical Exod. 13:4; Deut. 16:1 The Sacred Year began in the Spring (MarchApr.) Name after the Exile Nisan Meaning of the month “ripening of corn” or “month of the ripening ears” or literal first fruits, “a green ear,” or “green ears of the barley.” “month of flowers” 1 Kings 6:1 Iyyar 1 Kings 8:2, the Civil year began, agricultural in the Fall (Sept.-Oct.) Feast of Trumpets or New Moon 1 Kings 6:38 Tishri “the sowing of grain” or “month of perennial streams” Heshvan (Marchesvan) “rain or showers” Ab Elul Ethanim Bul Kislev Tebeth Shebat Adar Canaanite derivation “move,” “start,” is the first month of the ecclesiastical year or the vernal equinox “to be bright,” “flowers” “appoint,” “mark” Name of an ancient Akkadian god identified with vegetation “hostile” heat, “bulrushes” growing “to shout for joy” at vintage “begin” civil year, “dedicate” to the sun-god by Babylonians, that Jews associated the Creation and the Day of Judgment “drop,” “rainy season” derivation is uncertain “to sink,” “dip” derivation is uncertain “to be dark” Num. Months - Zodiac Sign (Other) Sumerian Hebrew Based on the Biblical week or seven-day creation regardless of lunar or solar cycles. 1 Mar.21-Apr.19 Aries ^ Ram 2 April 20-May 20 Taurus ^ Bull 3 May 21-June 20 Gemini ^Twins 4 June 21-July 22 Cancer ^ Crab 5 July 23-Aug. 22 Leo ^ Lion 6 Aug. 23-Sept. 22 Virgo ^ Virgin 7 Sept. 23-Oct. 22 Libra ^ Scales 8 Oct. 23-Nov. 21 Scorpio ^ Scorpion 9 Nov. 22-Dec. 21 Sagittarius Archer (25th day is Nov. 28 Sumerian nisag, first fruits. (14th day is Passover; 15th-21st day Feast of Unleavened Bread; 16th Day of Firstfruits). (14th day is Later Passover). (6th day is Pentecost is Judaism Shavuot of Law and wheat festival; To Christians the seventh Sunday after Easter). (1st day is Sept. 6 Rosh Hashanah; 10th day is Sept. 15 Yom Kippur; 1520th day is Sukkoth) Hanukkah or Feast of Dedication). ^ Abib the 7th Hebrew calendar, Nisan Hebrew ‘abib, spring, the 7th Jewish calendar Ziv, replaced by Hebrew Iyar or Iyyar the 8th Jewish calendar. Sivan the 9th Jewish calendar - Hebrew siwan. Akkadian Lunar and began with the waxing crescent moon, each month 29 or 30 days, and a 354 day year. The New Year at the vernal equinox is the middle of one of our months. Akkadian nissanu, the first month of the year. Akkadian Ajaru. Akkadian Simanu. Tammuz or Thammuz the 10th Jewish calendar -Hebrew Tammuz. Av also Ab the 11th Jewish calendar -Hebrew ‘ab, from Canaanite ‘ab. Elul the 12th Jewish calendar -Hebrew ‘Elul. Ethanim replaced by Tishri the 1st Jewish calendar - Hebrew tisri. Babylonian Du’uzu, the name of a god. Akkadian Tamuzu. Bul replaced by Heshvan or Heshwan the 2nd Jewish calendar Hebrew keswan, short for m ar keswan. Kislev the 3rd Jewish calendar - Hebrew kislew. Akkadian arahsamnu. Akkadian Abu. Akkadian ululu, elulu. Akkadian tasritu, the month Tashritu. Akkadian kislimu, kisliwu. Also Kissilimu. 10 Dec. 22-Jan. 19 Capricorn ^ Goat Tevet or Tebet or Tebeth the 4th Jewish calendar - Hebrew tebet. Akkadian tebetu. 11 Jan. 20-Feb. 18 Aquarius ^ Water bearer Akkadian Shabatu. 12 Feb. 19-Mar. 20 Pisces ^Fishes Shebat a variant of Shevat the 5th Jewish calendar - Hebrew sebat. Adar the 6th Jewish calendar - Hebrew ‘adar. Added an intercalary month to the 3rd, 6th, 9th, 11th, 14th, 17th & 19th (7 times in 19 years). The 13th month was added every 3 years, based on moon phase observation. MUL.APIN. 13 (14-15th day is Purim or Feast of Ester). Akkadian adaru or Addaru. http://ccwf.cc.utexas.edu/~hope/cur.html Calendar: Ur Ur (modern Tell al-Muqayyar) was a Sumerian city in southern Mesopotamia established early in the Ubaid period (c. 4000 BC). The city was the primary center for the worship of the Moon god, Nanna (Sin), and is home to a magnificent ziggurat built for the purpose of his adoration. Ur was a port city for Mesopotamian trade with countries in the Persian Gulf and beyond until the 18 th century BC and was probably abandoned in the 4th century BC because of a change in the course of the rivers (Roaf p101). Calendar of Ur Tablets from pre-Sargonic (before 2334 BC) Ur give us nine month names, however their order is not known. The names are as follows: 1 2 itishe-kin-[ku5] Sum. she, barley, ku, “to eat,” or “determiner.” itiezem-mah-dNin-a-zu5-ka Sum. nin, lady, lord, a, water or in, ka, mouth. The calendar reformed in the Ur III period by Shulgi, king of Sumer from 20942047 BC. Five of the preSargonic month names survived the transition, and the total number of months rose from nine to twelve. She-kin-[ku5] Sum. she, barley, ku, “to eat,” or “determiner.” Mash-ku-gu7 Sum. Mashdagu is 1st month of the year. Sumerian zagmu, New Year. Utu, the sun, New Year festivals. Autumnal Equinox Sargon’s Queen, the Lady Ash (Ash-Nini), Tomb Inscriptions at Abydos deciphered. Gizzida (Gishzida) son of Ninazu, consort of Belili, doorkeeper of Anu, 'The Lord knowing the waters.' Nin-Azu - god of Eshunna. 3 4 5 itiab-gir-gu7-dEn-ki-ka Sum. ab, cow, dingir, god, en, spiritual head of the temple, lord, ki, earth, ka, mouth. itine-girx itiezem-mah-dNanna Sum. mah, a priestly class, august, Nanna, full moon. zahx(SHESH)-da-gu7 Sum. gud, ox, bull also ninda. guda, a priestly class. guzala, throne-bearer. u5-bimushen-gu7 Sum. mushen, bird. ki-sig-dNin-a-zu Sum. ki, earth, nin, lady, lord, a, water or in. Sargon’s Queen, the Lady Ash (Ash-Nini), Tomb Inscriptions at Abydos deciphered. Gizzida (Gishzida) son of Ninazu, consort of Belili, doorkeeper of Anu, 'The Lord knowing the waters.' Nin-Azu - god of Eshunna. 6 itiamar-sag-gu7-dNanna Sum. amar, Marduk, Jupiter, sag, head, Nanna, full moon. ezem-dNin-a-zu Sum. nin, lady, lord, a, water or in. Sargon’s Queen, the Lady Ash (Ash-Nini), Tomb Inscriptions at Abydos deciphered. son of Ninazu, consort of Belili, doorkeeper of Anu. Nin-Azu - god of Eshunna. Gizzida (Gishzida) - 7 itia-ki-ti Sum. a, water or in, ki, earth. a-ki-ti Sum. a, water or in, ki, earth, Vernal Equinox. 8 itishu-esh-dNanna Sum. Nanna, full moon. itiezem-mah-dNin-e-gal Sum. mah, a priestly class, august, nin, lady, lord, e, house, gal, big. ezem-dShul-gi Note: SHU, the island sign. shu-esh5-sha / ezemdShu-dSuen Sum. suen, crescent moon. Note: SHU, the island sign. 9 The other New Year festival of the city of the moon, a celebration of the triumph of Nanna, the moon over the sun, Utu. SHA = The Shepherd means “protect,” “protector,” and also “shepherd,” and “shining.” Sargon’s Queen, the Lady Ash (Ash-Nini). Nin-agal - 'lord strong-arm' patron god of smiths, chews copper & makes tools. 10 ezem-mah Sum. Ezenmah is the Great Festival or 9th month of the year. 11 ezem-an-na Sum. an, heaven. 12 ezem-dMe-ki-gal ki, earth, gal, big. 13 iti-diri ezem-dMe-ki-gal ki, earth, gal, big, the intercalary month. emesh - summer (Feb/Mar - Sept/Oct); winter - enten (Sept/Oct - Feb/Mar); Great Festival - Ezenmah Sumerian Words from Chapter Four Sect. C A, house, RIT A, (House of Pharaoh). -A-A NUN-HU, The Great Sea-Lord. Urash was the First Phoenician Dynasty for “Sea Lord,” the sign of “the great Fish” or “Sea Serpent of the Deep.” In the fourth standard he calls himself “The Great Sea Lord of the Lands of the Seven Seas.” AHA, AN, Literally “The One,” or One Lord. BAR, BARA, (the) Pharaoh. BAR-U, O (Sun-)Lord. BATU, of the dead, BAT, “Dead,” bad, gate, or fatal. BUR, The Son of. See Mar-Gi. BURU, Lord (Pharaoh). DILI, man. DU, leg, DU-DU, two legs, run. E or Khadu, pictured by the Sun + Foot or “Sunrise.” EGIR-SHU-USHU, back to the Setting Sun. Note: SHU, the island sign. ENE, Throne sign meaning “enthroned” or “lord.” GE, or GI, “of.” GI-TAB, Tab or Dab = “two,” or Twain or Double, check out “Twins.” GI-TIL-GE, the overthrown one. KI U KISH, and Kish. KUD-U, The One Judge. KUR, LUGAL, the king, in Sumerian is a diagram of the King’s bust and crowned head; without legs. MAD, Land, of the Land. MAD-MAD, of the Lands. MAR-GI, son of. MIM, the dead. MUSH-SUR, of Mushur (Egypt), The word-sign for “Egypt” in the form of Mush-ur or Mush-Sir, written by two signs of the great Serpent (Mush or Sir) and an Insect (Mush or Sur). PA, (or XU) Hawk, The (Sun-)Hawk (line), of the (Sun-)Hawk race. PAR, PARU, the Hawk (-line). RA, Sumerian Re, “Sun, bright, Sun-god.” RIT (or SAG), head. SAKH, the Lord, SAKH GUN, the Lord GUN. SAR, the whole (Earth). SAT, Sumerian Sat, S’AT, “Land, country, mountain.” SHAR-GA-NI, King GANI. SHU, the island sign. SHU-DU, great Sun-Fish or the ‘Resurrecting” Sun (Shu-Kha) which the Sumerians use to invoke from the dead. TABKI, city. TAG, “Land.” TI (or NA), drill, drive away, throw down. TIANU, “Tianu Land” or “Land of the Lions” (Assyrian Tidnu or Tidanu) = Asia Minor or Amorite Land, Syria-Phoenicia. (Amurru), probably the old Hittite city of Tyana in South Cappadocia, in Amorite Land. Other possibilities are Martu, Axara, Akharu, Ikarian Sea Land. TIL, the complete. TUR, a tomb, defined as “dig, dwelling, cave, fold.” UKUSH, of the UKUSH line, the Harp-sign. U, and Waters. UR, the spiked Club-sign. URI, Semitic Akkad, Sargon’s Agadu. WI, Wis “West,” WI-ES, in the West, WI-U, Of the Western Sunset, Mediterranean lands with the Atlantic coast, WI-MAD-GI, of the West-Land. Reads : SARKUR AHA E-BURU KUD GU DU-DU Transl.: The whole (Earth) Protector (or Leader), The (Sun-)Hawk house, AHA, The Water-Lord, reported perished Reads : WI ES BUR BARU PA-RU GANI Transl.: in The West, The Son of Pharaoh of the Hawk line, GANI (or GUNI) Reads : MIM MAN PABAR WI MA- NI- TUS- SI Transl.: the dead (king) MAN, The (Sun-) Hawk Pharaoh, in the West, MANI-TUSSI. Reads : TISHU BARA MAN PARIN AHA Transl.: TISHU, The Pharaoh MAN of the (Sun-)Hawk race, AHA. Reads : RA,DAG,ZAL ASH or IMI(N) USSA Transl.: Revolving Sun (RA), Heaven. The bright Field of Tas (Tasia). Reads: MAD URI -KI U KISH -TABKI LUGAL -AN AN = Literally “The One”; LUGAL = King URI = Semitic Akkad or Sargon’s Agadu. Transl: Of the Land of Uri (or Akkad) and Kish City, the One King. Reads: MAD -WI -U TIANU LUGAL Transl: Of the Western Sunset Land and of Tianu, the King. The “Western Sunset Land” = Mediterranean lands with the Atlantic coast. The “Tianu Land” or “Land of the Lions” (Assyrian Tidnu or Tidanu) = Asia Minor or Amorite Land, Syria-Phoenicia. (Amurru), probably the old Hittite city of Tyana in South Cappadocia, in Amorite Land. Other possibilities are Martu, Axara, Akharu, Ikarian Sea Land. Reads: MAD -MAD -U -A-A NUN -HU -PAR Transl: Of the Lands and Waters, The Great Sea-Lord, the Hawk (-line). Urash was the First Phoenician Dynasty for “Sea Lord,” the sign of “the great Fish” or “Sea Serpent of the Deep.” In the fourth standard he call himself “The Great Sea Lord of the Lands of the Seven Seas.” Reads: MA- GAN (Hu) BAT -TI -(Hu) WULU -ES Transl: Magan, dead men (“birds”) BAT = Bad, Gate, or Fatal. GAN = Gridiron-like sign that touches the top of the top line bordering the compartment. Then there are two hawks facing left, to show direction of reading and indicate victory of the King of the Sun-Hawk cult. “Magan dead and bound men.” The Ship-sign (Ma) as in Ma-gan. Lion or Wolf sign on the second standard. Reads: SHAR -GA -NI DILI -PA RIT A - SAKH GUN Transl.: King GANI, man of the (Sun-)Hawk (House of Pharaoh) RIT, the Lord GUN Reads: BURU MAR -PA RIT GIN -TI (or NA) Transl.: Lord (Pharaoh) Son of the (Sun-)Hawk, RIT (or SAG) , GIN -TI (or NA) NA = Ti for Sumerian drill “drive away, throw down”; in Egypt a Stone-drill cap. Reads: BAG GID GI RU Transl.: The (Sun-)Hawk (line) Pharaoh GID, GI-RU Indian list king, called Bhagi-ratha or “Bhagi-the-charioteer.” Pg. 107 as in Egypt his solar name by the Sun-hawk and the sign of the Serpent, which last has a phonetic value of Gid. Thus with the Ba or Bag value of the Hawk-sign followed by Gid, we get Bagid or Baggid, in series with Bhagi to be seen in Fig. 31 to the left. Pg. 107 It thus appears that Igigi is corrupted from his Egyptian solar title of Gid-Gi-ru. Note that it is in line with Budge’s Egyptian name Tcha. Reads: BATU LUGAL -DU -DU -GE TUR ENE BARA Transl.: of the dead King Dudu the tomb. The (enthroned) Lord the Pharaoh. Batu or Bat is synonymous with Bat “Dead.” Lugal for “king” in Sumerian is a diagram of the King’s bust and crowned head; without legs. Du-du or two legs with the meaning of “run”, but the Leg sign =Du in Sumerian, thus Du-Du = two legs. Ge or Gi “of.” Tur a tomb, defined as “dig, dwelling, cave, fold.” Ene is the Throne sign meaning “enthroned” or “lord.” Bara = Pharaoh. Reads: MUSH -SUR -TAG -MAD -GI-TAB KUD -U E TAG Transl.: of Mushsur (Egypt) Land, the Two Lands. The One Judge. And of the Sunrise Land. The word-sign for “Egypt” in the form of Mush-ur or Mush-Sir, written by two signs of the great Serpent (Mush or Sir) and an Insect (Mush or Sur). Gi-Tab as Tab or Dab = “two ,” or Twain or Double. (Reference to Upper and Lower Egypt). E or Khadu pictured by the Sun + Foot or “ Sunrise.” Tag = “Land” Reads: EGIR -SHU -USHU -WI -MAD-GI TIL LUGAL DU-DU-U PARA AN Transl.: back to the Setting Sun of the West-Land, the complete king. Dudu, and One Lord or Pharaoh. Dudu’s name is spelt three times in the labels by the same duplicated Foot-sign by which he spells his name in Mesopotamia. Wi = Wis “West .” Reads: BAR -U MAD-MAD TAX GIN -SHU-DU .. . (?SHU)-KHA… Transl.: O (Sun-)Lord of the Lands, TAX (Tasia) The Helper, descend! … O (Sun-) Fish-Lord …. Shu-Du as a great Sun-Fish or the ‘Resurrecting” Sun (Shu-Kha) which the Sumerians use to invoke from the dead. Reads: PA DA-NU LUGAL KAD (DU)-DU MAR -GI GANA RIT GIN ERI Transl.: The (Sun-)Hawk (line) DANU, the King the Kad DU-DU son of GANA, RIT, GIN-ERI Reads: PA KI-A SHU -DU -U -UR UKUSH -GI -TIL-GE Transl.: The (Sun-)Hawk (line) KIA (or QIA) SHUDUUR, the overthrown one of the UKUSH line. Pa Hawk Ki-A may be either Ki or Qia + A. Shu the Island sign. Du-u Ur the spiked Club-sign. Ukush the Harpsign. Gi-Til-Ge the overthrown one. Reads: PA (or XU) KI-A (or QI-A) XU -DARA -UR Transl.: The Hawk (line) KIA, XUDARAUR The mask and inverted T, read in the Sumerian Dim-me or “Official messenger.” His solar title is given first place and it is followed by his personal name written within an oval cartouche. Pa (or Xu). Ki-A (or Qi-A) solar name. Xu in place of Shu. Dara the Net-sign drawn fuller in Egyptian form. Ur the spiked Club-sign. Xu-Dara-Ur = Shudur Kib(Qibi or Qibbi). Sumerian Re, RA, “Sun, bright, Sun-god.” Sumerian Sat, S’AT, “Land, country, mountain.”