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Marine Aquarium Trade Coral Reef Monitoring Protocol Gregor Hodgson and Domingo Ochavillo April 2006 i MAQTRAC Marine Aquarium Trade Coral Reef Monitoring Protocol Field Manual Gregor Hodgson Domingo Ochavillo 2006 Printed in Manila, Philippines. Citation: Hodgson, G. and D. Ochavillo. 2006. MAQTRAC marine aquarium trade coral reef monitoring protocol field manual. Reef Check Foundation. California, USA. 36 pp. This publication is made possible through funds of USAID under the Transforming the Marine Aquarium Trade (TMAT) Project and the International Finance Corporation-Global Environment Facility, Marine Aquarium Market Transformation Initiative in cooperation with the Marine Aquarium Council and the Community Conservation Investment Forum. For additional copies of this publication, please contact: Reef Check Foundation P.O. Box 1057 17575 Pacific Coast Highway Pacific Palisades, CA 90272 USA Tel: +1-310-230-2371 E-mail: [email protected] www.ReefCheck.org ii MAQTRAC Marine Aquarium Trade Coral Reef Monitoring Protocol Field Manual Gregor Hodgson and Domingo Ochavillo With contributions from Ladan Mohajerani, Jennifer Liebeler, Craig S. Shuman and Stuart J. Green iii Table of Contents Lists of Tables, Figures and Boxed Matters............................................................................................. v List of Appendices ..................................................................................................................................... vi Foreword .................................................................................................................................................... vii Acknowledgements .................................................................................................................................... x Acronyms.................................................................................................................................................... xi Chapter 1: Background ............................................................................................................................... 1 Chapter 2: Area Selection and Scoping..................................................................................................... 3 Chapter 3: Preparations for the Survey ..................................................................................................... 6 3.1 Survey Team Selection and Organization and Basic .................................................................. 6 Qualifications of Team Members ................................................................................................. 6 3.2 Species Identification and Field Standardization Exercises ........................................................ 6 Chapter 4: Selection of Sites ...................................................................................................................... 9 4.1 Selecting Control Sites ................................................................................................................ 9 4.2 Subsampling Strategy................................................................................................................ 10 Chapter 5: The Manta Tow Survey ........................................................................................................... 13 5.1 Ground-truthing of Habitats and Estimating Areas of No-take Zones ....................................... 13 Chapter 6: The Timed Swim Surveys....................................................................................................... 16 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 Timed Swim Surveys in Collection Sites ................................................................................... 16 Timed Swims in Noncollection Sites.......................................................................................... 18 Guidelines for Timed Swims ...................................................................................................... 19 Guidelines for Estimating the Number of Fish and Corals ........................................................ 19 Guidelines for Estimating the Size of Fish and Corals .............................................................. 20 Laying Down the Transect Line ................................................................................................. 23 Sequence of Tasks during the Belt Transect Surveys .............................................................. 24 Guidelines for the Invertebrate Belt Transect Surveys.............................................................. 24 Coral Damage and Rare Sightings Data Format....................................................................... 25 Substrate Indicators................................................................................................................... 25 Category Guidelines for Determining Substratum Types .......................................................... 26 Guidelines for Substratum Transect Survey.............................................................................. 27 Chapter 7: The Belt Transect Surveys ..................................................................................................... 22 Chapter 8: Observing Collection Practices and Tracking Catch-per-unit-effort ................................. 28 8.1 Diving Observations of Collectors ............................................................................................. 28 8.2 Fisheries-dependent Surveys (Catch-per-unit-effort Data) ....................................................... 28 Chapter 9: MAQTRAC Data Storage, Management and Other Concerns............................................. 30 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 Ornamental Survey Data Storage Format ................................................................................. 30 Substrate Data Storage Format................................................................................................. 30 Coral Damage and Rare Sightings Data Format....................................................................... 31 Site Description Data ................................................................................................................. 31 Ownership and Confidentiality of the Data and Results ............................................................ 31 Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................. 32 Appendices................................................................................................................................................ 33 iv Lists Tables 1: List of essential survey equipment…………………………………………………………..………………… 8 2: Coral reef health substratum survey categories and abbreviations ……………………………………… 26 Figures 1: Subsampling routine for survey sites (for manta tow, timed swims and belt transect site selection) …. 11 2: Schematic representations of percent cover for the estimation of live corals during the manta tow surveys ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12 3: An example of a GIS map showing the locations of the major habitats …………………………………. 15 4: Site selection based on general reef types: reef with lagoon, reef without lagoon and offshore patch reefs …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 17 5: Using an imaginary quadrat when counting numerous individuals of a species during a survey ……. 20 6: Measuring the length of corals and other similarly shaped invertebrates and starfish …………………. 21 7: How to lay down the transect line on the coral reef bottom with spurs-and-grooves ………………….. 23 8: Point sampling using a plumb line……………………………………………………………………………. 27 Boxed Matters 1: Marine Aquarium Council …………………………………………………………………………………….. 2: Reef Check Foundation ……………………………………………………………………………………… 3: The step-by-step MAQTRAC ………………………………………………………………………………… 4: Determining preset timed swim periods ……………………………………………………………………. 1 2 3 7 5: Dive safety considerations ……………………………………………………………………………………. 7 6: What collection area map(s) should include ……………………………………………………………….. 14 7: What timed swim data should include ………………………………………………………………………. 18 8: Coral reef health fish indicators (for timed swims) …………………………………………………………. 19 9: What belt transect data should include ……………………………………………………………………… 24 10: Coral reef health invertebrate indicators ………………………………………………………………….. 24 v Appendices 1: Reef Check fisheries management report format …………………………………………………………. 33 2: Coral damage and rare sightings data format ……………………………………………………………… 34 3: Substrate data format …………………………………………………………………………………………. 35 4: Site description form ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 36 vi Foreword ……………………………… The global trade in live ornamental marine fish and invertebrates, collected mainly from coral reef systems, is worth an estimated US$200-330 million annually. Worldwide, it is estimated that some 20-24 million marine ornamental fish belonging to over 1,400 species are traded each year. If well-managed, this trade presents a potentially valuable and sustainable income stream between over 1.5 million people who keep aquaria and live mainly in developed countries, and many thousands of poor communities living on the coasts of developing countries. The chain can be quite a long one and the Marine Aquarium Council (MAC) has devised a certification process, using a series of standards, to improve trade practices throughout the chain, from collection on the reef to the aquarium in the retailer’s shop. To put the global trade in a fisheries resource-use context, it has been estimated that in the Maldives alone about 5,120 mt of baitfish are collected annually as livebait for the pole-and-line tuna fishery. The bait species involved are mainly small (2–7 cm long) fusiliers, round herrings, cardinalfish, anchovies and damselfish. A brief calculation shows that the numbers involved must be in the order of 125–250 million individual fish annually. Thus in one country some 5 to 10 times as many small fishes are collected as bait each year as are traded worldwide by the marine aquarium industry. Much of the trade in marine ornamental fish focuses on small fast-growing species and species not favored for food so the resources being utilized are generally ones which would not be directly used otherwise and should be readily replenished. The value of such fish as ornamentals is often orders of magnitude greater than their value as fish protein. There is thus great potential for valuable additional and sustainable economic benefits to local communities from the aquarium trade, without conflict with existing resource use. However, the economics of the trade also focuses collection on a few, relatively uncommon, and beautiful species, which may become locally endangered or even locally extinct if collection is not managed carefully. There is thus an urgent need for effective management of the trade to ensure sustainability. vii Central to the trade being sustainable is the need to guard against any such overexploitation of the marine fish, corals and other invertebrates which are collected. This can only be achieved if good data are available on the collection areas from where the marine ornamental species are being obtained. The Marine Aquarium Trade Coral Reef Monitoring Protocol (MAQTRAC) has been devised by the Reef Check Foundation and Marine Aquarium Council as a means of collecting such data and ensuring that collection areas, designated under MAC’s Ecosystem and Fisheries Management standard, are managed in a sustainable way. Two manuals have been produced to guide those who will be performing MAQTRAC surveys. Firstly, a Field Manual that describes how to conduct surveys at collection sites, and secondly, a Data Analysis and Interpretation Manual that describes how these data can be analyzed and interpreted. Trying to judge at what levels the collection of fishes and invertebrates is sustainable within the collection areas defined in the Collection Area Management Plans required for MAC certification, is not a trivial task. Ideally multiple approaches are required so that conclusions can be cross-checked. MAQTRAC seeks to do this via yield-per-recruit and catch-per-unit-effort approaches for marine fish and noncoral invertebrates, whereas for corals, matrix population models are used. The scope of the surveys and analysis is ambitious but should ensure that those buying MAC-certified ornamentals can be reassured that they have been collected from a sustainable source. It is only with such an approach that the marine aquarium industry can protect itself from criticism on environmental grounds and incidentally maintain a valuable income stream for many poor coastal communities. The careful collection of monitoring data under MAQTRAC, which allows potential overexploitation to be identified and corrective action (e.g. lower quotas) to be taken, will allow effective management of the collection areas and promote sustainable resource use. This is a major step forward for the marine aquarium trade. The systematic and structured monitoring should also provide some valuable insights into the population dynamics of the species involved. Given the general perception that coral collection for the ornamental trade is contributing to the overall degradation of reefs, it is important that any unmanaged trade is avoided. Preferably, even the managed trade should focus on minimizing collection from the reef via culturing of corals in situ (sometimes called ranching). This allows small colonies to be grown from fragments over periods of several months. Fragmentation and recycling of some of the colonies so produced allow long-term sustainable production of corals for the trade without need for viii continuing collection from the reef. With an additional phase of early ex situ culture, corals can even be grown from spat. Unfortunately, many of the target coral species for the trade are largepolyped, slow-growing ones which are not easy to culture. Thus making sure that coral populations are carefully managed in collection areas is essential. There has long been a need to better understand the impact of collection of marine ornamentals on coral reefs. Utilization of these MAQTRAC manuals will at last give us a clearer idea of just what the impacts are, what levels of sustainable extraction are possible, and provide crucial support to managers on how to manage any impacts identified. Dr. Alasdair Edwards School of Biology University of Newcastle Newcastle upon Tyne United Kingdom ix Acknowledgements …………… We would like to begin by thanking the countless fishers, scientists, exporters, importers, retailers and hobbyists for all of their efforts and inputs in the development and testing of this protocol. We would like to recognize the members of the peer review workshops in Jakarta, Indonesia and in Honolulu, Hawaii: Charles Barber, Chuck Birkeland, Andy Bruckner, Annadel Cabanban, Terry Donaldson, Vicki Harriott, Febry Iskandar, Uus Kudus, Gilly Llewellyn, Kristy Long, Fini Lovita, Andreas Merkl, John Munro, John Parks, Anitimoni Petelo, Mary Power, Vaughan Pratt, Ketut Sarjana Putra, Peter Ramolina, Caroline Raymakers, Cairul Saleh, Jan Steffen, Terangi Foundation staff, Vo Si Tuan, Dody Timur Wahyuadi, Naviti Willian, Anna Willock, Tony Wonorahardjo, Kartika Yarmanti and Frank Bambang Ywono, all of whom provided invaluable advice on the monitoring methods. We also would like to thank Drs. Terry Done and Alasdair Edwards who reviewed the manual and provided scientific advice on numerous points in it. We would like to thank those members of the marine aquarium trade industry who introduced us to the inner workings of the trade: Eric Cohen, Tony Nahaky, Walt Smith and Lyle Squire. We are grateful to all of those who helped test and implement this protocol in the field including Ramil del los Reyes, Noel Evano, Ed Lovell, Helen Sykes, Jos Hill, Raymund Lim, Trias Razak, Renante Ruz, Mohammed Sharir, Lida Pet-Soede, Paul Holthus, Yunaldi Yahya, Hery Yusamandra and the staff of Reef Check Philippines and Indonesia. We would like to thank Lena Maun, Kelly McGee and Quiksilver International for providing logistical support. This publication was funded in part by a grant from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation and by the International Finance Corporation-Global Environment Facility Marine Aquarium Market Transformation Initiative. x Acronyms ……………………………… CAMP CPUE DD EFM GCRMN GIS GPS MAC MAQTRAC MPA Collection Area Management Plan catch-per-unit-effort decimal degrees format Ecosystem and Fisheries Management Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network geographic information systems global positioning system Marine Aquarium Council Marine Aquarium Trade Coral Reef Monitoring Protocol marine protected area xi Background ……………… The global trade in marine ornamentals is a complex industry involving numerous countries around the world. In the early 1980s, the import value of marine fish and invertebrates for the aquarium trade was estimated to be between US$24 and 40 million annually (Wood 1985). Current estimates place the import value of marine ornamentals between US$200 and 300 million annually (Chapman et al. 1997; Larking and Degner 2001). The proportion of marine organisms in the ornamental trade rapidly increased in the 1980s (Andrews 1990) with marine species comprising only 1% of the world trade in 1975 compared to a current estimate of 10% of the 350 million aquarium fish traded (Forum Secretariat 1999). Marine ornamentals are currently collected and sold worldwide. An estimated 85% of the marine organisms exported to three major destinations for marine ornamentals (North America, Europe and Asia) are collected from reefs in the Philippines and Indonesia (Forum Secretariat 1999). The remaining 15% are obtained mainly from reefs in Pacific Island countries, Hawaii, the Caribbean, Florida, the Red Sea, Sri Lanka, Indian Ocean Island countries and East Africa (Forum Secretariat 1999; Wood 2001). Box 1 Marine Aquarium Council The Marine Aquarium Council (MAC) (www.aquariumcouncil.org) is an international, notfor-profit organization that brings marine aquarium animal collectors, exporters, importers and retailers together with aquarium keepers, public aquaria, conservation organizations and government agencies. MAC's mission is to conserve coral reefs and other marine ecosystems by creating standards and certification for those engaged in the collection and care of ornamental marine life from reef to aquarium. MAC is implementing a certification program that lays out best practices from collection by fishers through to retail sale of the organisms. 1 Although cultured organisms are a rapidly expanding market (Kaiser et al. 1997), the majority of marine ornamentals is collected from the wild, entailing the capture and removal of living reef organisms including fish, corals, macro-invertebrates, plants and live rock. The potential high income generated from rare or endemic species provides a strong incentive for overexploitation (Wood 2001). Noting the need for a sustainable trade in marine ornamentals, MAC has devised a certification process using a set of standards to improve trade practices throughout the chain of custody, from collection in the field through to retailers’ shop. The MAC ecosystem and fisheries management (EFM) standard defines collection practices that minimize ecological and environmental impacts. The principles of EFM are as follows: • • • Collection and fishing of target marine aquarium organisms are undertaken according to the principles of sustainable use. Destructive collection and fishing practices are prohibited. Collection and fishing activities support the conservation of biological diversity in the collection area. The EFM requires that those managing the fishery shall produce and implement a Collection Area Management Plan (CAMP) consistent with the above principles and that CAMP shall be consistent with any pre-existing management plan that encompasses the collection area and/or fishery produced by the appropriate authorities. Box 2 Reef Check Foundation The Reef Check Foundation (www.reefcheck.org) is a not-for-profit organization with the mission of conserving marine organisms, especially coral reefs. Reef Check has implemented an annual Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN) in over 60 countries since 1997, and in 2000 has launched a temperate ecosystem program in California. Reef Check is particularly interested in market-based models for conservation such as MAC certification. As part of the certification process, collectors must agree to set aside a sizable percentage of their collection area as a “no-take” marine protected area (MPA). MAQTRAC Field Manual 2 In early 2000, MAC contacted GCRMN to request for a design of a monitoring program for the aquarium trade. GCRMN asked its partner, Reef Check, to provide this design. Since then, the Marine Aquarium Trade Coral Reef Monitoring Protocol (MAQTRAC) has been tried and tested by Reef Check in partnership with various individuals and organizations. Under EFM, MAQTRAC results and recommendations are required inputs to CAMP under MAC standards. MAQTRAC is designed to be carried out by coral reef biologists and/or highly experienced individuals who have high taxonomic identification skills for ornamental fish, corals and other invertebrates. Specifically, MAQTRAC is designed to: 1. describe, in a snapshot, the stocks of aquarium trade organisms in a collection area; 2. provide a scientific basis for recommending sustainable levels of collection; 3. recommend the locations for no-take and rehabilitation zones; 4. determine the impact of the aquarium trade; and 5. measure overall coral reef health. This MAQTRAC Field Operations Manual describes how to conduct surveys, from preparation through to the actual fieldwork, including organism and site selection. A second manual describes how the data collected are analyzed and interpreted. A summary of the steps involved in a MAQTRAC survey is given in Box 3. Box 3 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. The Step-by-step MAQTRAC Select the area through scoping. Apply for permits. Area Collect socioeconomic and biological data through interviews, participatory workshops and field visits with ornamental fish collectors. Create species list based on data of local trade. Delineate boundaries of the collection area. Select survey team, assign tasks, and prepare equipment and boats. Select survey sites. Design and carry out manta tow survey. Create a habitat map. Carry out underwater surveys (timed swims and belt transects). Finalize total species list. Analyze data and prepare the Fisheries Management Report. 3 MAQTRAC Field Manual Selection and Scoping 4) ………… (Steps 1 - Before an area can begin the process towards certification, a comprehensive analysis is undertaken to ensure that it meets a set of selection criteria. The full MAQTRAC survey is only undertaken after a desktop analysis and a separate scoping activity. The desktop analysis is mainly based on interviews of key persons such as exporters, ornamental collectors and local government personnel. An area is normally selected if it has the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. presence of an aquarium trade (local resident collectors); a good species mix (commercially viable) and volume in order to make the trade feasible; “buy-in” of local government unit and collectors; and potential of fishers to adopt a certifiable way (use of nondestructive methods such as barrier net collection) of tropical fish collection. Other relevant information that fall under the last criterion includes: 1. 2. 3. 4. synergies with pre-existing projects/programs; operational issues and market linkages; stakeholders and other resource users; and legal issues. In many countries, it is necessary to secure research permits prior to surveys. The MAC/Reef Check Team should apply in writing and secure necessary permits from the appropriate level of government prior to carrying out fieldwork. Formal letters sent in advance help build good relationships with local collectors and government officials. When first visiting an area, the MAQTRAC Field Manual 4 MAQTRAC team should present themselves formally to local officials and the collection area management committee (or equivalent) if already organized. Failure to obtain written permission from the authorities could derail the entire survey process. Gathering of secondary data and subsequent field scoping activities (and community workshops when deemed necessary) should provide information on the: 1. 2. 3. area’s fisheries (fishing practices/methods, target species and species groups, fishing sites, seasons); locations of habitats; and characteristics of local ornamental collection (number of collectors, collection techniques, target species and history of ornamental collection), etc. The scoping and the community workshops will be important in drafting the initial species list for the survey and in making the spatial design of the initial survey (initial decision of manta tow track). Information may be collected in various ways: interviews with key informants, focus group discussions and actual field observations. Working with local collectors will help begin to build trust and to increase the level of knowledge about collection practices, species collected, collection sites and resource management perspective of the collectors and perceived needs. Collection practices vary a great deal among sites. The aquarium trade is only one (usually small) aspect of the total fishery. Data analysis and interpretation must be done carefully and in the context of the overall fisheries in the area. The output from MAQTRAC surveys will form the basis for the local Area Profile and Ornamental Fisheries Management Report to be submitted to the CAMP Committee (Appendix 1). MAQTRAC Field Manual 5 Preparations for the Survey (Step 5) ……………… 3.1 Survey Team Selection and Organization and Basic Qualifications of Team Members Planning and preparation in advance of field activities is important prior to MAQTRAC surveys. This is not only true for site selection but also for team member assignments and equipment preparations. To perform a MAQTRAC survey, it is important that qualified marine biologists, who have been trained and have passed regular examinations with Reef Check Foundation, are selected to carry out the survey. Each biologist must have species level taxonomic skills and must be able to identify all key species at a given site. Typically, one scientist in a team will specialize in corals and other invertebrates and another, in fish. The ideal minimum number of members in a team is two or three. Multiple teams may be needed to complete surveys covering large areas. 3.2 Species Identification and Field Standardization Exercises Prior to conducting a MAQTRAC survey, team members should undergo species identification standardization exercises to ensure that all team members have common identifications of survey organisms. For the fish specialist, underwater size estimation exercises should be conducted to help him identify and correct any size estimate bias. In these exercises, fish and invertebrate models should be randomly deployed in a shallow reef area where survey scientists subsequently swim about and estimate sizes. These models should cover a range of sizes (small, medium and large, depending on species). There should be a minimum of three size estimation field exercises, and skills should at the minimum approximate to within 90% of the actual size. If the skill does not approximate the level suggested, any size bias (whether tending to downsize or outsize) should be considered in the data analysis. MAQTRAC Field Manual 6 Trial underwater timed swims (at least three trials to cover 100 m in linear distance) should be done to determine the “normal” time to conduct a survey. This exercise is detailed in Box 4. Box 4 1. 2. 3. Determining Preset Timed Swim Periods Layout a 100-m transect line over the coral reef bottom. Time yourself as you swim over the transect line at “normal” pace without recording any data. Repeat at least three times. Take the average time in the trials conducted. This is your timed swim period. Based on the authors’ experience, it takes 6 minutes to swim over a 100-m transect line. Your time should not vary greatly from this estimate. A team leader will be designated. He will be responsible for the overall planning and management of the surveys. He should make sure that members sign the liability forms and have specific tasks during equipment preparation and taxonomic assignments during data collection; that dive safety procedures are followed during underwater surveys; and that data are collated after the survey. Box 5 Dive Safety Considerations • • • • • • Surveys should be nondecompression dives with an absolute maximum of 25 m depth. Timed swims should be conducted not below 25 m and belt transects not below 15 m. Safety stops should always be used (5-minute stay at 3 m). Surveys should not be done in places where entrance/exit is restricted (caves, etc.). Underwater surveys should not be done in extremely fast water currents, during stormy weather and/or in other similar hazardous situations. During consecutive diving days, the team should set aside every 5th day as a nondiving day and for rest. MAQTRAC Field Manual 7 Besides the dive equipment (Table 1), the team should prepare underwater slates, stopwatch (for timed swims), plumb lines (for substrate survey), first-aid kit, communication equipment (radio or cellphone), and underwater still or video cameras. Pictures and videos give a “snapshot” picture of the reef and will be useful for future comparisons. At least three still photos and a 5-minute video should be taken for a general visual overview of each site. The goal is to obtain a selection of visual representation of the average coral reef condition of the collection area. These visual tools are also important in tracking the temporal changes of the area’s coral reef condition. The photos and underwater videos are also very effective in showing the state of resources during post-survey presentations to the local community. Table 1. List of essential survey equipment. Transect line Recommend 100 m marked in 1 cm intervals; fiberglass tape reel with handle that can be purchased or a plastic rope marked at 0.5 m intervals 1.5 m woven nylon or cotton string with 5 mm nut tied on 3 mm thick white plastic board can be cut into A4 sheets and roughened with sand paper. A pencil can be attached by drilling a hole in a corner and tied on with string. Mark slate edges with 1 cm rule for measuring corals and other invertebrates and estimating fish size. Marine plywood ¾” x 1 m x 0.5 m; attach underwater slate to the board with screws, hand hold and include cover estimates as per English et al. (1987). Any digital watch wherein a set time can be programmed during stop-and-start timed swim surveys Any type Map that indicates depth readings and habitat distribution especially for coral reefs. To record state of coral reef (optional) Bandage strips, tourniquet, bandages, alcohol, spirit of ammonia, iodine solution, burn and anti-bacterial ointments, cotton, anti-diarrhea medicines, oral rehydration tablets, aspirin, antacid, anti-histamine, painkillers, eye drops, scissors, etc. Any type that is available from dive shops Any type Plumb line Underwater slates Manta tow board Stopwatch Global positioning system (GPS) Navigational map or geographic information systems (GIS) map Still and video cameras First-aid kit First-aid handbook Dive computer MAQTRAC Field Manual 8 Selection of Sites (Step 6) ……… The distribution of organisms on a reef is influenced by habitat and ecological factors at several spatial scales. These factors may include habitat distribution, wave action or exposure, light and water depth. Both windward and leeward sides at reefs with lagoons or offshore reefs should be surveyed as well as embayments and exposed areas, taking account of annual weather patterns such as monsoon winds and wave action. It is critical that the surveys include a representative sample of all habitats where fish and invertebrates are collected as well as control sites – ideally a no-take MPA. These sites should also include those identified by collectors as collection sites. It is recommended that one survey site for every kilometer of reef front is established. 4.1 Selecting Control Sites It is important to choose both “impact” sites where aquarium collection is taking place and “control” sites where no fishing occurs. Data collected from control sites during subsequent surveys are used to determine whether changes observed at the fishing sites were caused by fishing or some other factors that affected the whole area. Control sites are areas free from aquarium fishing activities, ideally no-fishing sites. If true control sites are not available, then the lowest impact sites may be chosen to serve as reference sites. Sites should be selected such that collection and noncollection sites are relatively close (minimum of 500 m from the edge of the core zone but not more than 5 km) to reduce the effects of spatial variability between these sites, and far enough apart such that the exchange of organisms is uncommon. In addition, collection and noncollection sites should have the same direction of exposure to wind and waves and a similar submarine topography. When choosing control sites, it is important to determine the actual level of fisheries management/enforcement because many MPAs may be MAQTRAC Field Manual 9 “paper parks” and may lack enforcement. Ideally, three-year strict enforcement of no-take zones should be a criterion for site selection. 4.2 Subsampling Strategy The length of the MAQTRAC underwater survey period is primarily determined by funding and size of the area. In any case, underwater surveys conducted for around 2 weeks cover around 30 km reef front and/or coastline in a fringing reef type. For longer distances and if funding does not permit an extended period, it is advisable to employ subsampling techniques to survey the reef fronts (Figure 1). Before doing the actual underwater survey, the survey team should estimate the linear distance of reef front or coastline. This will dictate whether a subsampling routine is necessary. The reef front’s linear extent can be estimated using GIS maps or roughly from the scales indicated in a navigational map using a string or ruler. For barrier reefs and atolls, the reef front distance of both windward and leeward sides should be separately estimated. For wider reefs, surveys should be conducted for every 100-m reef width increment. In longer linear distances (> 30 km and when funding does not permit surveys longer than 2 weeks), it is advisable to identify and count the total number of area representative sites (of 1 km each in linear distance) based on exposure (sheltered versus exposed sites) and types of reefs. Narrow the number to 30 sites. It is important that the numbers of sites representing different habitats are proportionately represented in the manta tow and underwater surveys – for instance, given a total of 100 sites with 60 exposed and 40 sheltered. Sixty percent (18 of the 30 sites to be subsampled) should be exposed sites. Forty percent (12 of 30) should be sheltered sites. Figure 2 shows the identification and selection of sites during a subsampling routine. In this example, the total length of the reef front is 122 km. Therefore, a subsampling strategy is necessary. Each site pointed by an arrow is potentially a different habitat based on the degree of exposure and the type of reef. Each site should be surveyed for manta tow, timed swim and belt transect surveys as described below. MAQTRAC Field Manual 10 Figure 1 Subsampling routine for survey sites (for manta tow, timed swims and belt transect site selection). MAQTRAC Field Manual 11 Figure 2 Schematic representations of percent cover for the estimation of live corals during the manta tow surveys. MAQTRAC Field Manual 12 The Manta Tow Survey (Steps 7 - 8) …………………………… Manta tows (English et al. 1997) are used to obtain a rough estimate of the distribution of habitat types and condition in large reef areas over a relatively short period. The technique is useful in identifying and selecting sites that are representative of different habitat types such as seagrass, sand, muddy bottom and coral reef. A manta tow involves a diver holding onto a flat “manta” board that is attached by a rope to a boat and towed at low speed. By tilting the tow-board, the diver can stay at the surface or dive below the surface. Periodically, the diver can signal the boat to stop so that notes can be recorded in a standard format. Each tow should be 3 minutes in duration and boat speed should be approximately 3 km/hour (use the GPS track routine to standardize). A GPS reading (in decimal degrees or DD format) should be taken before and after each tow. After each tow, the observer will record an estimate of live coral cover according to the following schematic representations of percent cover (see Figure 2 as adapted from Dahl 1981) and the average slope angle of the reef covered by the tow. For safety reasons, manta tows should not be used when visibility is less than 6 m. This method is primarily for shallow water surveys above 10 m depth. It should not be used in deep waters due to safety considerations (e.g., danger of the diver going up and down in the water column). 5.1 Ground-truthing of Habitats and Estimating Areas of No-take Zones During the manta tow, the depth range and the position of the specific habitats (especially seagrass, algal beds and coral reefs) should be recorded at the start and the end of each tow. These ground-truthing exercises will be critical in developing a more comprehensive GIS map for the area through the merging of a nautical base map that normally has depth-sounding data MAQTRAC Field Manual 13 and a satellite map that has habitat distribution data. The consolidated map will be a more accurate estimation of the coverage of major habitats in a collection area. As part of the ground-truthing activities, the areas of the existing and planned MPAs should be estimated. The GPS readings of the corner points of rectangular or square MPAs should be taken. In case of circular and other irregularly shaped MPAs, the points of the perimeter can be recorded through a continuous GPS reading routine (i.e., using track option) . The production of a habitat map showing the collection area is an important visual tool to work with local stakeholders and forms the core of the Fisheries Management Report (see Figure 3). The locations of proposed no-take zones, boundaries of collection area and stock distribution can be easily shown using this map. Box 6 The Collection Area Map(s) should Include: From steps 1 to 4: boundaries of collection area locations of fishing communities major fishing grounds ornamental collection sites From steps 6 to 7: manta tow path and coral cover data locations and extent of the major habitats From steps 8 to 10: locations of timed swims and belt survey sites ornamental fish, invertebrate and coral cover distribution data distribution of low, medium and high-impact sites from site description data MAQTRAC Field Manual 14 Figure 3 An example of a GIS map showing the locations of the major habitats. MAQTRAC Field Manual 15 The Timed Swim Surveys (Step 9)……………… Fish and invertebrates have seasonal reproductive patterns. It is important to recognize that some fluctuations in the populations of some organisms may be caused by this seasonality. Ideally, MAQTRAC underwater surveys should be conducted during recruitment periods although this may be difficult when these periods differ among target organisms. 6.1 Timed Swim Surveys in Collection Sites The timed swim is a standard part of a MAQTRAC underwater survey. The purpose of the timed swim is to gain more information on the abundance of ornamental stocks in a larger area than can be accomplished using the relatively short belt transects. The timed swim is also used to record all fish and coral ornamental target species; standard Reef Check fish indicators plus family level identification and size classification of siganids (rabbitfish), acanthurids (surgeonfish) and caesionids (fusiliers); and an estimate of coral cover (using the same categories as in the manta tow survey). Both the numbers and the sizes of ornamental targets are recorded. Information on size distribution is critical to track population growth and mortality rates. These data, in turn, can provide insights into the sustainable level of collection appropriate for a species or species group. In each site, three timed swims of approximately 100 m by 5 m should be conducted each on the lower reef slope, the reef crest and the reef flat whether the reefs are classified as fringing, barrier or atoll (Figures 4a and 4b). In areas with no pronounced reef crest, only two zones (shallow and deep) should be covered. In much wider (> 100 m) reefs, we recommend three timed swims per coral reef zone for every 100 m reef width increment. MAQTRAC Field Manual 16 Figure 4 Site selection based on general reef types: reef with lagoon (a), reef without lagoon and offshore patch reefs (b). (Timed swims should be conducted in sites with indicated numbers while belt transects should be conducted in sites with letters.) In addition, three timed swims should be conducted in each of the key habitats used by collectors: seagrass and algal beds (or other habitats identified by fishers as important for the collection of ornamentals). In much wider (>100 m) seagrass or algal beds, three additional MAQTRAC Field Manual 17 timed swims for every 100-m width increment of these habitats are recommended. The three timed swims in each coral reef zone and other habitats should be conducted immediately one after the other. 6.2 Timed Swims in Noncollection Sites For no-take zone sites, the authors recommend three timed swims per coral reef zone and other habitats for every 500-m reef front. Conduct a smaller-scale survey since most noncollection sites or no-take zones in the Philippines have small areas. For much larger no-take zones and marine parks such as those in Indonesia, the one site and the corresponding timed swims per zone for every kilometer of coastline should be maintained. Timed swim surveys should be conducted between two hours after sunrise and two hours before sunset. This timing avoids the dawn and dusk periods when mobile nocturnal and diurnal species are changing. Box 7 Timed Swim Data should Include: Ornamental fish being traded Ornamental corals (for relevant countries) Reef Check fish indicators plus family level identification and size estimation of siganids, acanthurids and caesionids Estimate of hard live coral cover using manta tow categories MAQTRAC Field Manual 18 Box 8 Coral Reef Health Fish Indicators (for Timed Swims) Common Name Grouper/coral trout (>30 cm) Barramundi cod Butterflyfish (any species) Humphead (Napoleon wrasse) Bumphead parrotfish Grunts/sweetlips/margates Parrotfish (>20 cm) Snapper Moray eel (any species) Surgeonfish Fusiliers Rabbitfish Scientific Name Serranidae Cromileptes altivelis Chaetodontidae Cheilinus undulatus Bolbometopon muricatum Haemulidae Scaridae Lutjanidae Muraenidae Acanthuridae Caesionidae Siganidae 6.3 Guidelines for Timed Swims Conduct the timed swim in a reef area 100 m long by 5 m wide. Maintain a constant swim speed. Stop the timer when recording data and start it when swimming until the next target fish or invertebrate comes along. Identify each ornamental fish and coral to species, when possible, or trade category, and estimate their individual size and number. Count Reef Check fish Indicators but include size estimates for surgeonfish, fusiliers and rabbitfish. The total period of the stop-and-start timed swim should be approximately 6 minutes depending on the field trial exercises. 6.4 Guidelines for Estimating the Number of Fish and Corals Visually group the fish and corals by size classes (see recommended classes below) and count the number of individuals per size class. When a school of fish exceeds 50 individuals, practice visually superimposing an imaginary quadrat over the school. Take a third or quarter of this imaginary MAQTRAC Field Manual 19 quadrat. Count the abundance of fish in that section and then scale up the count accordingly (Figure 5). Use the imaginary quadrat method for clumped corals such as Goniopora, Diaceris, Polyphyllia and Fungia. (Use body length as a tool to visually superimpose imaginary quadrats with a maximum size of 2.5 by 2.5 m, depending on area coverage.) Count and size normally when they are not clumped. Figure 5 Using an imaginary quadrat when counting numerous individuals of a species during a survey. 6.5 Guidelines for Estimating the Size of Fish and Corals For fish, estimate size from the tip of the caudal fin (tail) to the tip of the snout (total length) to the nearest centimeter. Estimate fish size from the end of the longest fin in fish with caudal fins of unequal sizes. Fish less than 1 cm should be recorded as being 0.5 cm. For hard corals, measure length along the longest aspect (Figure 6). MAQTRAC Field Manual 20 For corals, record abundance in the size classes: ≤ 5 cm, 6-15 cm, 16-25 cm, 2650 cm and more than 50 cm. (These are the size categories used in the trade.) Use the ruler on one side of the slate to estimate fish and coral sizes and standardize for parallax errors. Figure 6 Measuring the length of corals and other similarly shaped invertebrates and starfish. MAQTRAC Field Manual 21 The Belt Transect Surveys ……………………… Belt transects are used to survey other ornamental invertebrates and Reef Check invertebrate indicators. A belt transect survey covers 100 m long, 5 m wide (2.5 m on each side) and 5 m above the line. The transect line is divided into four segments that are used as statistical replicates. The replicates extend over the following lengths of the transect: 0-20 m, 25-45 m, 50-70 m and 7595 m. Organisms are counted and/or sized within these dimensions of the survey. For relatively new trainees, it is not advisable to bring rods to estimate the width of the belt transect since they can scare away the fish. Instead, team members are advised to estimate the width using their extended arm lengths from the transect line during field exercises. Each survey site in a kilometer of reef front should have two belt transect surveys: one in <5 m depth (shallow) and another in 10-15 m depth (deep). In no-take zones, the authors recommend two belt transects (one shallow and one deep surveys) for 500 m of reef front in small MPAs (i.e., < 0.5 km2). For wide reefs (>100 m wide), two parallel belt transects are recommended for every 100 m increment of coral reef. In some areas, invertebrates are collected in high numbers in the intertidal areas. Intertidal areas should also be sampled in a similar way using the belt transect. The latter is best done during high tide so as not to disturb the habitat by trampling. MAQTRAC Field Manual 22 7.1 Laying Down the Transect Line It is usually convenient to lay down the transect and record data while swimming against the current and to retrieve the transect line with the current. The transect line should be laid parallel to the shoreline and as close to the coral reef substratum as possible. It must follow the coral reef contour as much as possible at uniform depth. When the reef forms spurs-and-grooves, the transect should follow the contour as long as the path of the transect does not overlap (see Figure 7). Otherwise, it can be ran down the spurs. The belt transect surveys should be done in the same vicinity as the timed swim surveys. Figure 7 How to lay down the transect line on the coral reef bottom with spurs-and-grooves. MAQTRAC Field Manual 23 7.2 Sequence of Tasks during the Belt Transect Surveys For two-member teams: After laying the transect, the team member assigned should go back to the start of the transect. The invertebrate specialist team member can immediately proceed to conduct the invertebrate survey. The team member who laid the transect should follow and conduct the substrate survey while following the invertebrate specialist. Usually, the invertebrate survey takes a longer period than the substrate survey. Therefore, we recommend that the invertebrate specialist cover only one side of the belt transect. After finishing the substrate survey, the transect line layer can then later conduct the invertebrate survey covering the other side of the belt transect. The other team member can then retrieve the transect line. Box 9 Belt Transect Data Should Include: Other ornamental invertebrate being traded besides corals Reef Check invertebrate indicators Substrate data points sampling Coral reef damage and rare sightings Box 10 Coral Reef Health Invertebrate Indicators Common Name Long-spined black sea urchin Lobsters (all edible species) Banded coral shrimp Sea egg/collector urchin Giant clams (record size and species) Edible sea cucumbers Triton Crown-of-thorns starfish Pencil urchin (record size of longest spine) Scientific Name Diadema spp. and Echinothrix diadema Panulirus spp. Stenopus hispidus Tripneustes spp. Tridacna spp., Hippopus spp. Thelenota ananas, Stichopus chloronotus, etc. Charonia tritonis Acanthaster planci Heterocentrotus mammilatus 7.3 Guidelines for the Invertebrate Belt Transect Surveys For ornamental invertebrates, measure length along the longest aspect. MAQTRAC Field Manual 24 For starfish, take the longest length from the tip of an arm to the opposite arm tip. Count only Reef Check invertebrate indicators but include sizes for pencil urchin and size and species for each giant clam recorded. Measure the longest spine of pencil urchins. Measure only the height for Dendronephthya spp. Abundance data without size measurements are sufficient for species that are difficult to size such as Xenia. Use the imaginary quadrat data for clumped ornamental invertebrates such as Discosoma, Sarcophyton, Xenia, brittle stars (in intertidal sites), etc. (Estimate an imaginary quadrat with a maximum size of 2.5 by 2.5 m, depending on the area coverage.) Count and size as usual when they are not clumped. 7.4 Coral Damage and Rare Sightings Data Format It is also important to take note of the degree of coral reef damage per segment during the belt transect survey (Appendix 2). It is recommended that survey scientists consult the updated standard Reef Check instruction manual. 7.5 Substrate Indicators The goal of the substrate survey is to determine the health of the coral reef based from the cover data. For this purpose, each transect line will be point-sampled at 0.5 m intervals. To reduce bias, it is useful to carry a 5-mm diameter nut or other small metal object tied onto a 3-m cotton or nylon string for use as a "plumb-line." The substrate type is recorded at 0.5 m intervals along the line, i.e., at: 0.0 m, 0.5 m, 1.0 m, 1.5 m etc. up to 19.5 m (40 data points for every 20-m transect segment). The use of the plumb line prevents parallax error of surveyors who are swimming above the substrate. Plumb lines are useful in cases where the transect is hanging above the substratum and swinging back and forth with the surge. Dropping the plumb line at the designated mark eliminates any choice in where to measure. See Table 2 for substrate category abbreviations. MAQTRAC Field Manual 25 Table 2. Coral reef health substratum survey categories and abbreviations. Abbreviation HC SC SG RKC AL SP RC RB SD SI OT Substratum Category Hard coral Soft coral Seagrass Recently killed coral Algae Sponge Rock Rubble Sand Silt/clay Others 7.6 Category Guidelines for Determining Substratum Types 1. 2. 3. 4. Hard coral: include fire coral (Millepora), blue coral (Heliopora) and organ pipe coral (Tubipora) as well as all types of “reef builders”. Soft coral: include zoanthids, but not sea anemones (which is under "others”). Seagrass: all species of seagrass, not to be confused with algae. Recently killed coral: record coral that has died within the past year. The coral may be standing or broken into pieces, but appears recently killed. (Coral is white, structurally intact, only partially overgrown by algal turf, etc.) This will be particularly important in detecting the possible impacts of cyanide and the evidence of dynamite use. Algae: do not include coralline or turf algae in this category. Sponge: all sponges (but no tunicates) are included. Rock: any hard substratum whether it is covered in algae (turf or encrusting coralline), barnacles, oysters or other organisms are placed in this category. Rock will also include dead coral that is more than about 1 year old, i.e., worn down so that few coral structures are visible, and covered with a thick layer of encrusting organisms and/or algae. Rubble: includes rocks (often laying over sand) between 0.5 and 15 cm diameter. If it is larger than 15 cm, it is rock; if smaller than 0.5 cm, then it is considered as sand. Sand: smaller than 0.5 cm and falls quickly to the bottom after being resuspended. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. MAQTRAC Field Manual 26 10. Silt/clay: sediment that remains in suspension if disturbed. Note that these are practical definitions and not geotechnical ones. 11. Others: any other sessile organism including sea anemones (which are also included in the invertebrate belt), tunicates, gorgonians or nonliving substrata. 7.7 Guidelines for Substratum Transect Survey The observer should stop at every 0.5 m and record the substrate at that point. (0.0 m, 0.5 m, 1.0 m, 1.5 m, etc… 19.5 m). A point sample is taken by dropping the plumb line and determining the substrate that the weight at the bottom of the line lands on (see Figure 8). Figure 8 Point sampling using a plumb line. MAQTRAC Field Manual 27 Observing Collection Practices and Tracking Catch-perunit-effort ……………………………………… 8.1 Diving Observations of Collectors It is important to directly observe aquarium collectors in the field to gain information about the specific target habitats, techniques, impacts and collection efficiency. A minimum of two days is recommended for diving observations of collectors, especially for highly in-demand species. The number of fish caught per person-hour (catch-per-unit-effort or CPUE) will be calculated from the total time that encompassed travel and collection and also during collection time (time spent in the water). These values will be used to calibrate values obtained from collector records for fisheries temporal comparisons. Different collection methods will have different CPUE ranges; therefore, monitoring of collectors should be based on local collection techniques employed. It is important to note the habitat type, using the substrate categories in Section 7, targeted by the collectors during the diving observations. 8.2 Fisheries-dependent Surveys (Catch-per-unit-effort Data) Besides the field surveys, it is equally important to track trends in CPUE of target organisms among collectors in an area. CPUE is a useful tool to infer changes in target abundance especially for those species not always observed during the surveys. Surveys can miss species that are either cryptic, found in specific reef habitats or highly mobile. CPUE data are only MAQTRAC Field Manual 28 meaningful for those organisms that are always in demand (middle to high-end species). Data based on orders of organisms from buyers are not useful in assessing stock size because catch is dependent on what is currently in demand. Fish that are traditionally in demand in Southeast Asia include the anemonefish (especially Amphiprion ocellaris and Premnas biaculeatus), some butterflyfish, angelfish (Pomacanthus imperator, P. navarchus, P. xanthometopon, Pygoplites diacanthus), surgeonfish (Paracanthurus hepatus), balistids (Balistoides conspicillum) and mandarinfish (Synchiropus splendidus). CPUE data, expressed as number of target organisms per collector and period of collection (usually per hour), can be obtained from the logbooks of collectors. Ideally, the data should also include the location where fish were collected. MAQTRAC Field Manual 29 MAQTRAC Data Storage, Management and Other Concerns (Steps 10 - 11) ……………………… MAQTRAC teams collect a large amount of data during their field assessments. It is important that data are quickly transcribed into a computer and backed up. Standardized forms are available from Reef Check to make assessment and data consolidation simpler. All data should be entered into a database or spreadsheet format. 9.1 Ornamental Survey Data Storage Format The data format should include information on the area, site name, GPS reading (decimal degrees or DD format), observer, date of survey, collection (yes or no) (on-site description worksheet), species, size estimate, count and special remarks (on the data input worksheet). The fish and invertebrate data on overall coral reef health should be recorded and associated with the same GPS coordinates as the ornamental data. We have included in this manual the database formats for the ornamental data as a guide (download from www.reefcheck.org). 9.2 Substrate Data Storage Format The substrate data storage format should show the categories every 0.5 m of each replicate (Appendix 3). MAQTRAC Field Manual 30 9.3 Coral Damage and Rare Sightings Data Format It is important to take note of degree of coral damage and rare sightings per survey site (Appendix 2). 9.4 Site Description Data The site description is to record the condition of a specific survey site. More importantly, it aims to give a general picture of human impacts on the coral reef site (Appendix 4). 9.5 Ownership and Confidentiality of the Data and Results Data collected are owned by the sponsoring company or agency that paid for the MAQTRAC surveys. In case of public-funded projects, the data should be in public domain. Some of the data may contain business and/or ecologically sensitive information that should be confidential unless permission is given to release them. Summary reports of the outputs and management recommendations will be available to the public and the relevant local management authority. Researchers may use the data for publication in scientific journals with prior written authorization from the sponsoring company or agency that paid for the surveys. For instructions on data analysis and interpretation, please see the MAQTRAC Data Analysis Manual. MAQTRAC Field Manual 31 Bibliography Andrews, C. 1990. The ornamental fish trade and fish conservation. J. Fish Biol. 37: 53-59. Chapman, F.A., S.A. Fitz-Coy, E.M. Thunberg and C.M. Adams. 1997. United States of America trade in ornamental fish. J. World Trade 28: 137-159. Dahl, A.L. 1981. Coral reef monitoring handbook. South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 21 p. English, S., C. Wilkinson and V. Baker. 1997. Survey manual for tropical marine resources. 2nd ed. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, Australia. Forum Secretariat. 1999. Marine ornamentals trade quality and sustainability for the Pacific region. South Pacific Forum Secretariat Trade and Investment Division, Suva, Fiji. Hodgson, G., L. Maun and C. Shuman. 2003. Reef Check survey manual for coral reefs of the IndoPacific, Hawaii, Atlantic/Caribbean, Red Sea and Arabian Gulf. Reef Check, Institute of the Environment, University of California, California, USA. 33 p. Kaiser, H., P. Britz, F. Endemann, R. Haschick, C.L. Jones, B. Koranteng, D.P. Kruger, J.F. Lockyear, L.K. Oellermann, A.P. Oliver, Q. Rouhani and T. Hecth. 1997. Development of technology for ornamental fish aquaculture in South Africa. S. Afr. J. Sci. 93: 351-354. Larkin, S.L. and R.L. Degner. 2001. The U.S. wholesale market for marine ornamentals. Aquar. Sci. Conserv. 3: 13-24. Wood, E. 1985. Exploitation of coral reef fishes for the aquarium trade. Report to the Marine Conservation Society, UK. Wood, E. 2001. Collection of coral reef fish for aquaria: global trade, conservation issues and management strategies. Marine Conservation Society, UK. 32 Appendices ………………………… Appendix 1. Reef Check fisheries management report format. REEF CHECK FISHERIES MANAGEMENT REPORT Report Area “XXXXXX” – 2005 1 LOCATION: AREA NAME, PROVINCE, GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION Table of Contents I. II. Collection area and description Status of coral reefs and surrounding ecosystems in the collection area Characterization of the reef health and human impacts Current management initiatives in place/proposed Key habitats and their locations in the collection area Fisheries (all) Types of fisheries Number of boats/people Roving collectors/illegal fishing Fishing gear inventory All fish and invertebrates collected in the area Types of fishing gear used to collect ornamental fish MAQTRAC results Fish Invertebrates Precautionary species Species unsuitable for collection Density-based approach to management Total allowable catches of species Proposed management planning activities Page Number III. IV. V. MAQTRAC Field Manual 33 Appendix 2. Coral damage and rare sightings data format. Rate the following as: none = 0, low = 1, medium = 2, high = 3 Description Coral damage: boat/anchor Coral damage: dynamite Coral damage: others Trash: fish nets Trash: general Please fill in the following: Grouper sizes (cm): Bleaching (% coral population): Bleaching (% colony): Coral disease (yes/no and %): Rare animals sighted (type/#): Others: 0-20 m 25-45 m 50-70 m 75-95 m 0-20 m 25-45 m 50-70 m 75-95 m MAQTRAC Field Manual 34 Appendix 3. Substrate data format. Site Observer Point (A) 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0 15.5 16.0 16.5 17.0 17.5 18.0 18.5 19.0 19.5 20.0 Date Visibility Point (C) 50.0 50.5 51.0 51.5 52.0 52.5 53.0 53.5 54.0 54.5 55.0 55.5 56.0 56.5 57.0 57.5 58.0 58.5 59.0 59.5 60.0 60.5 61.0 61.5 62.0 62.5 63.0 63.5 64.0 64.5 65.0 65.5 66.0 66.5 67.0 67.5 68.0 68.5 69.0 69.5 70.0 Substrate HC SC RK Etc. Point (B) 25.0 25.5 26.0 26.5 27.0 27.5 28.0 28.5 29.0 29.5 30.0 30.5 31.0 31.5 32.0 32.5 33.0 33.5 34.0 34.5 35.0 35.5 36.0 36.5 37.0 37.5 38.0 38.5 39.0 39.5 40.0 40.5 41.0 41.5 42.0 42.5 43.0 43.5 44.0 44.5 45.0 Substrate HC SC RK Etc. Substrate HC SC RK Etc. Point (D) 75.0 75.5 76.0 76.5 77.0 77.5 78.0 78.5 79.0 79.5 80.0 80.5 81.0 81.5 82.0 82.5 83.0 83.5 84.0 84.5 85.0 85.5 86.0 86.5 87.0 87.5 88.0 88.5 89.0 89.5 90.0 90.5 91.0 91.5 92.0 92.5 93.0 93.5 94.0 94.5 95.0 Substrate HC SC RK Etc. MAQTRAC Field Manual 35 Appendix 4. Site description form. Site name: Date: Name/s of surveyor/s: Time of day that work started: Time of day that work ended: Latitude of transect start and end point: Longitude of transect start and end point: Orientation of transect: Distance from shore: Weather: Distance to nearest population center: Approximate population size (x 1,000): Horizontal visibility in water: Why was this site selected? Any major coral damaging storms in past years? How do you rate this site, overall, in terms of anthropogenic impact? What types of impacts do you believe occur? What is the level of food fishing at this site? What is the level of ornamental fishing at this site? What species are targeted as both ornamentals and food fish? Is there any form of protection (statutory or others) at this site? If yes, what type of protection? How long have ornamentals been collected from this area? Does the Collection Area Management Plan apply to survey area? If yes, when was it enacted? Number of collectors in working site; how many are MACcertified? Primary species targeted by collectors Observed collection methods Suspected collection methods Additional information or comments yes_____ no_____ yes_____ none____ no_____ low____ unknown__ moderate__ heavy___ Start: Start: End: End: N-S___ NE-SW____ E-W____ SE-NW____ _____ m sunny_____ _____ km ______ _____ m cloudy____ raining___ none____ none____ low____ low____ moderate__ moderate__ heavy___ heavy__ yes_____ no_____ MAQTRAC Field Manual 36 MAQTRAC Field Manual 37