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Feasibilty Study For A Professional Degree Programme In Elementary Education

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FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR A PROFESSIONAL DEGREE PROGRAMME IN ELEMENTARY TEACHER EDUCATION AT DELHI UNIVERSITY Maulana Azad Centre for Elementary and Social Education Central Institute of Education, University of Delhi February 1993 Feasibility Study for a Professional Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education at Delhi University. © MACESE, Central Institute of Education 2001 University of Delhi ISBN 81-901362-1-6 This report has been prepared by Dr. Poonam Batra with the assistance of Mr. Somnath Sen and Mr. Ranjan B. Verma. Published by: MACESE, Central Institute of Education (Department of Education) 33, Chhatra Marg, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 Tel : 7667434, 7666353, 7667509 Extri. 303 Telefax : 7667925 Email : [email protected] [email protected] Printed by: SHYAM ENTERPRISES B-76, lind Floor, Naraina Industrial Area, Phase-IT, New Delhi-110028 Tel.: 9810005489, 5280552 Rs. 50/- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I take this opportunity to thank Professor Upendra Baxi, Vice Chancellor, University of Delhi, who initiated the idea of conducting this feasibility study and gave us the necessary support to commission it. I also thank Professor A.L. Nagar, Pro-Vice Chancellor, for this support in commencing the study. My gratitude is extended to Professor Nargis Panchapakesan, Head, Department of Education, Delhi University, for her expert comments and continued encouragement and support provided during the course of the study. I also thank Professor Krishna Kumar of the Department of Education, for expert advice and help in structuring the study proposal. I extend my thanks to Professor J.S. Rajput, Educational Advisor, MoHRD, whose sharing of personal experiences in the field of Elementary Teacher Education gave a positive direction to this endeavour. I take the opportunity to thank administrators and decision makers met during the study : Dr. A.K. Sharma, Joint Director, NCERT; Dr. G.L. Arora, Director, SCERT; Dr. Muralidharan, Head, Department of Pre-School and Elementary Education, NCERT; Shri Shakti Sinha, Director, Directorate of Education, Delhi Administration; Dr. N. Siddiqi, Ex-Principal, DIET Rajendra Nagar, Dr. Shakti Kapoor, DIET Moti Bagh; Shri S.R. Arya, Commissioner, Delhi Administration; Shri Mathur, Director, Education, NDMC; Shri Purushotam Goyal, Chairman, Delhi Metropolitan Council and Ms. Swatantara Bala, AEO, Research and Extension, MCD, for their valuable suggestions and advice. I thank the primary school teachers and the students of education and pre-service teacher education programmes that we met during the course of this study, whose personal feelings and insights brought into focus the major problems facing primary education in Delhi. I thank Somnath Sen and Ranjan B. Verma, consultants to this study, for their expertise and professional help in the design, execution and analysis of data for this report. I sincerely thank Sangeeta, Malavika, Shefali, Prabha, Tripta and Alka for their valuable assistance in conducting most of the in-depth interviews. And last but not the least; I thank Shri Chandra Mohan Verma, Shri Harjeet and Shri Baijeet for their assistance in data and word processing. Dr. Poonam Batra Reader, MACESE Central Institute of Education University of Delhi, Delhi - 110 007 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Maulana Azad Centre for Elementary and Social Education (MACESE) had set out in its Annual Plan 1992-93, the task of starting a degree programme (after + 2) in elementary teacher education, proposed to be called the B.E1.Ed. A feasibility study was commissioned to assess the demand and possibility of initiating a B.El.Ed. programme in collaboration with undergraduate colleges of Delhi University. The study, attempted to examine the aspirations, current status, socio-economic and psychographic profiles of existing elementary school teachers, students of pre-service training programmes and students opting for education in an undergraduate programme. It attempted to assess the status of service rules which currently determine the career paths of elementary school teachers. This study assessed the status of education in undergraduate colleges to determine the possibility of initiating the B.El.Ed. programme in the 1993-94 academic year. The focus of the study was on the qualitative patterns and processes influencing various actors involved in elementary teacher education. In-depth interviews with students and primary school teachers and administrators, were undertaken. Group discussions were held with students of pre-service teacher education programmes. Discussions were held with the Government officials and administrators of Delhi’s elementary school system. Secondary data was also utilised, to assess the potential requirement for primary school teachers over the decade. The study found that the enrolment in primary schools in Delhi is expected to rise from 1.3 million in 1991 to slightly above 2 million in 2001. There were about 1,700 primary schools and 20,000 teachers to meet this requirement in 1987. The teacher- child ratio at present is over 1:45 which is considerably higher than the ‘acceptable” level of 1:30. To achieve this, over 2,350 additional primary school teachers will have to be trained annually over the coming decade. There is therefore, a large gap in the availability of professionally trained primary schoolteachers, as the present annual output of trained teachers is less than 400. As of now, only the DIET/JBT courses cater specifically to the training needs of the primary teacher. The study also found, that apart from the lack of a professional degree programme for primary teachers, considerable professional and economic stagnation occurred at primary school level. Primary school teachers for example, were found to continue to draw an Assistant Teachers Grade (ATG) for 12 years even after acquiring a B.Ed. degree. Their counterparts in both government and private schools, teaching at secondary and senior secondary level, received considerable comparative economic advantage because they are eligible for TGT and PGT salary scales. Hence, due to anomalies in the compensation structure and its linkage with “paper qualifications”, most primary teachers acquire degrees from correspondence courses and “move up” to teach higher grades. The proposed programme could fill this gap and enable a graded system of career development within primary education. This in turn would considerably improve educational quality. Primary school teaching is currently not seen as a professional option, but rather as a means to complement household incomes in a “socially acceptable” profession by female teachers or as a Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University (i) “last-choice” option for unemployed male graduates. The most professionally oriented students of elementary education were found to be from DIETs (who have clearly chosen teaching as a profession). Hence, most have chosen to opt for a two year diploma because of the economic pressure to acquire a job. Current B.Ed. students emerged as a group that was. seeking “convenient, part-time” employment with an aspiration to teach at ‘higher levels’ within the school system. The low salary and status accorded to primary education emerged as the most important factor, that would determine the entry of motivated and talented candidates into the proposed B.E1.Ed. programme. This will have to be remedied, if the quality of primary education has to improve. The overwhelming response of all sets of participants to the programme, was positive. Most respondents felt that a professional programme, would fill an important gap in the present system. DIET and B.A. (Pass) students were very positive and made a number of suggestions on the content and professionalisation of the programme. Administrators and decision makers expressed the need for “trained, qualified teachers from Delhi”, as most of the present posts were filled from outside the Capital. They also felt that a long duration course (4 years) was necessary for professional development of a teacher. The longer duration course would also enable a case to be built for parity with the B.Ed. degree and entry at a TOT scale. All the contacted Delhi University college principals were positive towards the proposed programme. Two assured administrative and resource faculty support for the programme for the 1993-94 academic year. Two models of programme management emerged from the study: the first located in undergraduate colleges and supported by MACESE in the education and internship area; the second would be based in MACESE and supported by college resource faculty. Two programme options also emerged: a 4 year integrated programme (which was preferred) and a 3 year Integrated programme. The study demonstrated the imperative need for professionally qualified elementary school teachers in Delhi. The high demand for teacher educators trained in elementary education, emerged as a obvious corollary of this. The study has also shown the felt need for, and importance of launching a degree programme of elementary teacher education at Delhi University. The major questions that therefore face the University are: • its level of commitment towards universalising primary education, which is not only a national objective, but priority area for government social development investment. • its willingness to initiate and support a professional elementary teacher education programme that could expand the current potential output of Delhi trained elementary school teachers from less than 5% of total demand to a more acceptable figure over the decade. Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University (ii) • its choice of programme (4 or 3 years) and management options (college or MACESE based) to initiate a pilot B.El.Ed. programme in the 1993-94 academic year. • its support towards the professionalisation of elementary education by opening future academic and career options to teachers through the proposed B.El.Ed.; M.El.Ed and other options. Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University (iii) CONTENTS Acknowledgements Executive Summary i-iii STUDY BACKGROUND Introduction Rationale Objectives Methodology 01 DEMAND FOR PRIMARY EDUCATION IN DELHI Projected primary school enrollment Present infrastructure for primary education Availability of teachers Requirement of primary school teachers Teacher education Professional development and mobility of primary school teachers Perception of primary school teaching 04 PROFILE OF STUDY GROUPS Primary school teachers School administrators Undergraduate students DIET students NTT students B.Ed. students 16 REACTIONS TO THE PROPOSED B.El.Ed. PROGRAMME Proposed B.El.Ed. Programme Disposition towards B.El.Ed. DIET students NTT students Undergraduate B.A. (Pass) students Primary school teachers B.Ed. students Administrators and decision makers Suggestions on content Suggestions on programme administration Skills and aptitudes required for primary teaching 21 Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University (iv) Reactions of Delhi University college principals OPTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Faculty size Option 1: Four year integrated programme (B.El.Ed.) Option 2: Three year integrated programme (B.El.Ed.) 28 CONCLUSION 33 APPENDIX IA. Guideline for in-depth interview (Teachers/Principals) 34 IB. Guideline for in-depth interview (Undergraduate Students of Education) 37 IC. Guideline for in-depth interview (Govt. Officials/Decision Makers) 39 IIA. List of administrative decision makers interviewed 41 IIB. List of Principals of colleges of the University of Delhi Interviewed 42 III. Entry level conditions for admission into the proposed B.El.Ed. programme 43 IV. A tentative curriculum framework for the proposed B.El.Ed. programme 44 Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University (v) LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES FIGURES I. Age Structure of Child Population in Delhi 4 II. Number of Schools in Delhi by Type 6 III. Schools by Type of Management in Delhi 6 IV. Teachers at Different Levels in Delhi Schools 7 V. Permanent Teachers at Different Levels of Delhi Schools 10 VI. Returns from Investment in Education 14 TABLES 1. Projected Delhi primary school going population 5 2. Teacher - student ratio in schools of various levels in Delhi 8 3. Projected requirement of primary teachers in Delhi 8 4. Projected annual additional requirement for primary teachers in Delhi 9 5. Teacher education programmes in Delhi 11 6. Teacher’s salary scales in government schools in Delhi 13 7. Summary of characteristics of sampled groups 19 8. Proposed models of B.El.Ed. programme management 27 9. Projected faculty size for primary teacher educators in Delhi for three years degree programme 29 10. Projected faculty size for elementary teacher educators in Delhi for four year degree programme 30 Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University (vi) STUDY BACKGROUND Introduction The Maulana Azad Centre for Elementary and Social Education (MACESE) has set for itself the mandate of (a) professionalising elementary education in the country; and (b) increasing the base of University involvement in elementary school education (MACESE Perspective Paper, 1991). In keeping with this, the task of starting a professional degree programme of Teacher Education for elementary school teachers has been included in its Annual Plan of 1992-93. This professional degree programme is proposed to be of three/four years duration and may be called ‘Bachelor of Elementary Education’ (B.El.Ed.). The minimum eligibility criteria will be qualifying the class XII examination (See Appendix III). This programme is proposed to be introduced at the undergraduate level in collaboration with colleges of the University of Delhi from the 1993-94 academic year. The proposed programme will offer courses from two streams: liberal arts and sciences taught by faculty of undergraduate colleges. The pedagogy and foundations of education and internship with schools will be taught by the MACESE / Department of Education faculty. Rationale The rationale behind the introduction of a professional B.El.Ed. programme is as follows: 1. There is a large demand for primary school teachers from both Government and ‘private’ schools in Delhi. This demand is expected to grow with Delhi’s rapid population growth. The bulk of the present supply of teachers appears to be met from outside the existing teacher education system of the capital, due to a large gap between demand and supply. The bulk of these teachers are educated through correspondence and other courses that do not provide them with an adequate base to impart quality education at the primary level. 2. The present B.Ed. programme (offered at Delhi University) focuses on secondary school teaching and uses a subject-based focus in training teachers. It, therefore, does not cater to the demands of teaching children at the elementary level. While secondary and higher levels of school education, require a subject-based focus, primary school teaching demands a focus on child learning and effective communication with children as well. The proposed B.El.Ed. programme will therefore have the ‘child’ as an important focus. The main thrust will be on understanding children and communicating effectively with them, with the ultimate goal of ensuring effective learning. The programme, therefore, shall seek to integrate knowledge of subject areas within the framework of pedagogy of teaching young children, rather than merely that of teaching subjects. 3. Most existing elementary teacher education programmes offer either a Certificate or a Diploma at the end of one or two years. Recognising the inadequacy of these Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 1 programmes, the NPE (1986) makes a firm commitment: “as the first step, the system of teacher education will be overhauled. The Programme of Action (POA) identifies three areas in which the role of the teacher requires support: training in academic inputs, training in psychological inputs and research and development. The proposed B.El.Ed. programme will offer a professional degree at the end of three years after class XII. Such an integrated programme will enable the professional and psychological development of the elementary teacher. 4. This attempt at professionalizing elementary teacher education could help combat the indiscriminate mushrooming of B.Ed. courses of inadequate quality. These courses have not only reinforced the casual attitude towards elementary school teaching and education, but are popularly believed to have contributed to its poor quality. The proposed B.E1.Ed. programme will fulfil the requirement of adequately equipped teachers at the elementary stage. At present, there is an obvious mismatch between the demands of elementary school teaching and the skills imparted to trainees through ‘B.Ed. like” private courses. Consequently, elementary school teachers are either mis qualified or are unmotivated and unprepared in the pedagogy of teaching children. 5. Existing teacher education programmes have been found to be too short to allow any real innovations or make an impact on the participants’s attitude. An integrated teacher education programme that extends over three/four years will provide the participants adequate opportunity to observe children and be in constant touch with them. The internship in school teaching will, have the added advantage of classroom exposure and probable assimilation of elementary education skills and concepts over a relatively longer period than is presently available to B.Ed. students. 6. Administering the B.El.Ed. programme in an undergraduate college will provide students with the necessary psychological space which a University department may not offer. Moreover, involving the colleges will distribute the responsibility of contributing to elementary school education to a larger number of institutions, than a specialised University department of education. This may also help to increase the number of trained primary teacher educators, as the proposed programme expands to a number of colleges across the University. 7. At present, most elementary teacher educators are not trained in elementary education and hence, the inputs and scope of innovation in training, is often limited. MACESE also proposes to start an M.E1.Ed. programme of two years duration. This will enable the recruitment of teacher educators (e.g. by DIETs) who are professionally trained in elementary education. It will also open research and other academic options for professionals in this area. The creation of such pathways for professional development and research will enable the field of elementary education to develop and possibly fulfill the requirements of primary teachers in Delhi over the decade. Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 2 Objectives The specific objectives of the study were to: 1. Explore the aspirations, current status, socio-economic and psychographic profiles of existing elementary school teachers; students of pre-service training programmes; and students opting for Education in an under-graduate programme. 2. Assess the status of education in colleges to determine the possibility of starting the B.El.Ed. programme. 3. Assess the status of rules that currently determine career paths of elementary school teachers. 4. Explore the dimensions of admission procedure such as aptitude for teaching young children. Methodology The study focussed on the qualitative pattern and processes influencing the various actors involved in teacher education, planning, management and provision of elementary education. The study in keeping with the objectives, focusses on uncovering aspirational, behavioural and institutional parameters rather than establishing detailed quantitative estimates for the proposed programme. The following process was utilized to undertake the study: 1. In-depth interviews were conducted with fifteen undergraduate students of Delhi University who had offered education as one of their subjects. 17 primary school teachers were also interviewed of whom 5 were from private/public’ schools and 6 each from schools managed by MCD and Delhi Administration. Discussions were also held with 7 Headmasters/Headmistresses/Principals from three private/public’ schools, two MCD/NDMC schools and two schools managed by Delhi Administration. (Refer to Appendix I for check list used for in-depth interviews and list of respondents in Appendix II). 2. Three group discussions were conducted with students of DIET, B.Ed. and one nursery teachers training course. These discussions were conducted to understand the demographic and socio-economic backgrounds of the participants; their reasons for having opted for the particular course; their hopes and aspirations; peer and family reactions to their choice. Their suggestions and reactions to the idea of introducing the proposed programme in elementary education, was probed in detail. 3. Discussions were also held with eleven government officials who are decision makers or administrators in Delhi Administration, NDMC, MCD, NCERT and other bodies of the Ministry of Education, Government of India. (See Appendix II for list of officials). Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 3 4. Secondary sources of data were used to assess the requirements of the proposed programme in quantitative terms. These substantiated the information gathered from administrative sources through interviews. DEMAND FOR PRIMARY EDUCATION IN DELHI Projected Primary School Enrollment The quantum of demand for education in Delhi especially at the primary and nursery levels is huge. The 1991 population of Delhi at 9.42 million people grew at a rate of 51% over the 1981- 91 decade. The city population is projected to rise to 13.3 million in 2001 if past growth trends continue. The structure of child population in Delhi in 1987 is presented in Fig. I. Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 4 The rapid growth in both the total and child population of Delhi over the 1981-2001 period is presented in Table (1). The population of children from the ages of 6 to 11 is expected to rise over this period from 1.7 million to 2.6 million or nearly 20% of the total population. Given an increase in enrolment rates in primary schools from 72% to 73% of the total child population (6- 11), it has been projected that the enrolment rate will rise to 80% by 2001. The total projected enrolment in primary schools is expected to rise from 1.3 million (1991) to slightly above 2 million in 2001. Table(1): PROJECTED DELHI PRIMARY SCHOOL GOING POPULATION (1981-2001) Year Population Population (6-11) %(6-11) to total population Enrollment in Primary Schools % Enrollment 1981 6,220,000 1,06,000 17.1% 767,520 72.0% 1987 7,900,000 1,395,341 17.7% 1,020,047 73.1% 1991 9,370,475 1,733,538 18.5% 1,300,153 75.0% 2001 13,300,000 2,593,500 19.5% 2,074,800 80.0% Source: Census of India, Planning & V Education Survey Note: 1991 and 2001 figures are based on projected, fraction of child population and estimated and enrollment levels Present Infrastructure for Primary Education There are about 1,700 primary schools, 500 middle schools and 1,100 secondary and higher secondary schools in Delhi (Selected Statistics in Education, MoHRD, 1992). This data is at some variance with the statistics reported in the NCERT Educational Survey of 1987 (Fig. II). Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 5 Apart from the schools that have been promoted by the Delhi Administration, NDMC and MCD, a large number of private / missionary / ‘public’ schools cater to the demand for “convent education”. The distribution of schools by type of management shows that primary education has been left largely to local bodies (MCD) and to the private schools, aided or unaided (Fig. III). The slow growth in the number of Corporation schools and the rush for admission in “English medium convent schools” has led to a mushrooming of private schools in Delhi, catering to different levels of education. These are started and managed with varying infrastructure facilities Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 6 and investments. Running and managing these schools are found to be lucrative so much so that these schools are found to be lucrative so much so that these may even be housed in residential flats and run with one or two teachers. Availability of Teachers There are currently about 20,000 teachers at the primary level, 5,000 teachers at the middle and about 40,000 teaching at the secondary and +2 level in Delhi. About 50,000 candidates appear for the selection test for Assistant Teacher posts (for Corporation schools alone), of which 1500 to 2000 are recruited. Figure IV shows that there is a relatively high proportion of teachers at the primary level (due to a larger number of schools) at the secondary and higher levels (due to many subject specialized teachers). In comparison, the number of teachers teaching at the upper primary (middle) levels is proportionately small. Female teachers make up about 60% of the primary teachers in Delhi - which is seen as a “socially acceptable” employment option. In contrast, the lack of employment opportunities has “driven” a large number of men to offer their candidature for primary school teaching in hope of a secure job. The teacher-student ratio in schools of various levels in Delhi as reported by the Fifth Educational Survey (NCERT, 1992), is presented in Table (2). The reported teacher-student ratio varies considerably from 1:34 in primary schools, to 1:11 in the relatively more privileged higher secondary schools. The data of school enrolment and number of teachers from this survey, seems to indicate that the teacher-student ratio is considerably higher and may even approach 1:44 for primary schools in Delhi. Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 7 TABLE(2): TEACHER STUDENT RATIO IN SCHOOLS OF VARIOUS LEVELS IN DELHI (1987) Level Teacher-Student Ratio Primary 34 Upper Primary 31 Secondary 18 Higher Secondary 11 Source: Fifth All India Educational Survey, 1992, NCERT Requirement of Primary School Teachers (1991-2001) The projected requirement of primary teachers is based on the projected enrolment in primary schools over the 1981-2001 periods and is reported in Table (3). Three teacher-child ratios have been examined to highlight the impact of this critical parameter on the requirement for primary teachers. An “acceptable” teacher-child ratio of 1:30 implies the requirement of over 37,000 primary school teachers in Delhi in 1991 and over 59,000 teachers in 2001. At close to the current teacher- student ratio of 1:44, the requirement of teachers is roughly 29,000 in 1991 and 46,000 in 2001. With a higher ratio of 1:50, the total number of teachers reduces to 26,000 in 1991 and 41,500 in 2001. A rate of 1:50, however, is acknowledged to be totally unacceptable for any quality of primary child-centered education. All attempts will clearly have to be made at policy, financial and teacher education levels to ensure that this situation does not come to pass over the current decade. TABLE(3) : PROJECTED REQUIREMENT OF PRIMARY TEACHERS IN DELHI (1981-2001) Year Teacher-Child Ratio(1:30) Teacher-Child Ratio(1:45) Teacher-Child Ratio(1:45) 1981 21,929 17,056 15,350 1987 29,144 22,668 20,401 1991 37,147 28,892 26,003 2001 59,280 46,107 41,496 Source: Census of India, Planning Commission & V Education Survey Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 8 The projected annual additional requirement for primary teachers in Delhi over the 1991-2001 periods has been estimated in Table (4). A number of assumptions have been made to derive this estimate including: the filling of all vacant posts at the primary level by 1991 (this has not happened as yet); an attrition rate of 1% of the total number of serving teachers (due to retirement, transfers, etc.) and an anticipated output of 450 trained primary teachers per year from training institutions in Delhi (current output 350 per year). To achieve an acceptable teacher-child ratio of 1:30, close to 2,350 primary teachers will have to be trained every year over the present decade. This is the target that the educational system would need to set for itself. However, if this is not possible, it will be essential to at least maintain the present teacher-child ratio of 1:45. This implies a requirement of 1,700 trained teachers per year. Even at a totally unacceptable ratio of 1:50 the total requirement of additional trained teachers per year will exceed 1,500. TABLE(4): PROJECTED ANNUAL ADDITIONALREQUIREMENT FOR PRIMARY TEACHERS IN DELHI (1991-2001) Year Teacher-Child Ratio(1:30) Teacher-Child Ratio(1:45) Teacher-Child Ratio(1:50) 1991-2001 2,356 1,733 1,514 Source: Census of India, Planning Commission & V Education Survey Note: Assuming filling of all vacant posts by 1991, attrition rate of 1% and output of 450 trained teachers per year from Delhi The number of permanent school teachers (1987) in Delhi is highest at the primary level as presented in Fig. V. In view of the large demand that exists for primary education, it is not surprising to find the highest number of permanent teaching positions at this level. The relative security of primary school teaching compared with other levels is one major factor that influences the entry of students into the JBT and DIET programmes. The potential for secure employment of two years after completing school education is a major incentive to enter the profession. The scale of the requirement for primary teachers is itself, a clear justification of the requirement for and the viability of a massive expansion in current teacher education programmes in Delhi. The ‘social acceptability” of the profession (especially for women), and the unemployment among young male graduates imply that the huge demand will be filled. The question that faces the educational system in Delhi, is whether this “gap” will be filled by trained professionals Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 9 educated at Delhi University or by teachers who have “acquired” the relevant “paper qualifications” through correspondence and other courses. . Teacher Education The broad trends and processes involved in teacher education and selection are laid out in the following section and Table (5). a) There are six institutions which specifically train teachers for primary education in Delhi: four District Institutes of Education and Training (DIET) and two Junior Basic Training Institutes. These institutions train between 250 and 300 teachers each year. Most of these teachers join Government schools. Two private JBT institutes have been recently started. There are a large number of applicants for these courses. The DIETs alone receive approximately 6,000 applications for admission, of which about 200 are selected (a ratio of 1:30). b) Private schools were found to absorb B.Eds at the primary level, even though they are not specially trained to teach at that level. The current B.Ed. course is designed to prepare teachers for middle, secondary and senior secondary school teaching. When the nature of the educational institution is important to the aspirant (e.g. being employed in a private/ ‘public’ / missionary school), B.Eds are ready to teach even at the primary level. c) There are a large number of Nursery Teachers Training Institutes (NTT) of which some are recognised by the Government. Students who have undergone this course are eligible to teach at the nursery levels and up to Class II. They are not absorbed into Government primary schools unless they have completed their graduation. Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 10 d) Public schools prefer to recruit teachers, who have done their B.Ed. They may also absorb graduates who are trained in other courses, (e.g. NTT and DIETs), for early primary teaching: Class I and II. e) The rest of this large demand for teachers at primary and nursery levels is filled by people who have done a “token” B.Ed. course (e.g. a correspondence B.Ed. from Annamalai University) or from nearby States (e.g. Haryana). Graduate or even post- graduate teachers were found to acquire a degree through correspondence, after becoming a school teacher. f) A number of courses are run by private/missionary institutions (such as St. Bede’s, Shimla). Trainees from these institutions are taken into missionary/private schools for early primary teaching (Class I and II) and may be given higher grades of Class III to V only if they acquire a B,Ed. degree. Class III is seen as the change-over point to subject teaching. From this stage onwards, teachers are expected to be qualified and holders of a B.Ed. degree. TABLE(5): TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMMES IN DELHI (1992) Program me No. of Institution s Duratio- n (year) Eligibili ty Award Level Career Options NTT 25 2 +2 Certificate Teaching nursery and eligible for Grade I & II Nursery teaching in Govt. & private schools JBT 2 2 +2 Certificate /Diploma Teaching Grades I to VIII Primary (I to V) Asst. Teacher in Corporation Schools DIET 4 2 +2 Diploma Teaching Grades I to VIII Primary (I to V) Asst. Teacher in Corporation Schools B.A. (Pass with Education) 3 3 +2 B.A. (Pass) degree Eligible for B.Ed. Join B.Ed. for pursue higher education B.Ed. 1 1 Graduati -on B.Ed. degree Teaching up to graduation X, can teach +2 if post- graduates Join at the TGT scale; at PGT scale if post-graduates; or join M.Ed. & doctoral research Source: The concerned institutions Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 11 The eligibility criterion for entry and career options of students of each of these courses are presented below: 1. The Junior Basic Training (JBT) programme was the precursor of the newly introduced DIET programme. JBT trainees are treated on par with DIET trainees for recruitment in government schools. About 100 candidates are trained by the two JBT Institutes in Delhi each year. 2. A Bachelors degree is necessary for DIET trainees to obtain a TGT scale which allows them to teach at middle school (VI to VIII). The Delhi Administration prefers to recruit DIET trainees at the primary level if they also have a graduate degree. Approximately 200 candidates are trained by the four DIETs each year. 3. Private schools recruit NTT trainees for teaching grades I and II, but corporation schools do not. Teachers trained at recognised NTT institutes, largely cater to the demand of teachers for private schools. 4. Students of B.A. (Pass with Education) do not have the option of joining a teaching job after graduation. The only options open to them are continuing with higher education and then academic positions in colleges or the University. 5. Five seats in the B .Ed. offered by the Delhi University are reserved for students of B.A. (P) with Education as a subject. But this caters to less than 3% of the total output of this course. It is clear from this analysis that current teacher education programmes do not cater to even a fifth of the demand for trained teachers. Moreover, there is no course apart from the DIET/JBT which caters specifically to primary education. The B.Ed. course prepares teachers for middle school and above but trained teachers prefer to teach in higher classes, much to the neglect of middle schools which do not have any teacher education course specifically catering to their needs. Professional Development and Mobility of Primary School Teachers A primary school teacher enters employment as an Assistant Teacher in the Government School System. She continues in the ATG* scale for 12 years, after which she is given a higher scale equivalent to the TGT scale as presented in Table (6). She continues to draw the ATG scale over these 12 years that she teaches at primary level, even if she has acquired a B.Ed. degree. Only teachers with a B.Ed. degree, teaching at middle school level, are entitled to a TGT scale. The probability of a primary school teacher to move up to a TOT position, on acquiring a B.Ed. degree depends on the number of vacant posts at the middle school level. With the takeover of middle schools by the Delhi Administration from the Municipal Corporation, 42% of the TGT positions (of the Delhi Administration) have been reserved for primary school teacher applicants of Corporation schools. Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 12 * Currently referred to as PRT Acquiring a TGT position is competitive in the present system because of two reasons: • middle school teaching demands subject specialisation and there exists a variation in the demand for different subjects. • the overall requirement for (upper primary) middle school teachers is less than that for primary school teachers (probable reason for this could be the high dropout rate at the primary stage itself). Therefore, it is not surprising to find B.Ed. trainees from Delhi University getting absorbed as Assistant Teachers to begin with, until vacancies at middle/senior levels come about. Private schools prefer teachers with a B.Ed. degree even for primary level teaching. They usually have a salary structure within which promotions are awarded to teachers by moving them from lower classes to higher classes. Even within the primary level there is an ‘upward movement” depending upon the qualification and proficiency of the concerned teacher. Subject-based teaching is introduced at the later primary (Class III) stage and is seen to require higher educational qualifications. This probably reinforces the belief that subject-based teacher training is superior (even for primary levels) and hence be the focus of all teacher education programmes. The scales followed for teachers in government schools are presented in Table (6) given below: TABLE(6): TEACHER’S SALARY SCALES IN GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS IN DELHI GRADE PRE-REVISED SCALE REVISED SCALE* Assistant Teacher Grade(ATG) 1200-30-1560-EB-40-2040 4500-125-7000 Trained Graduate Teacher(TGT) 1400-40-1600-50-2300-EB-60- 2600 5500-175-9000 Post Graduate Teacher(PGT) 1640-60-2600-EB-75-2900 6500-200-10500 Source: Delhi Administration * As per V Pay Commission To reiterate, primary school teachers enter employment in government schools at the Assistant Teacher scale as presented in Fig. (VI). After 12 years she normally moves on to a higher scale (equivalent to the TGT grade). Likewise, a middle school teacher may enter employment at the TGT scale and expects to receive a higher scale (equivalent to PGT scale) only on completion of 12 years service. After +2, instead of joining a two year pre-service programme (e.g. DIET), an additional investment of 3 years in B.A. and a year for B.Ed. could place a teacher at the TGT scale to Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 13 begin with. This would enable her to be seven years ahead of her counterpart entering at Assistant Teacher scale. It therefore makes economic sense for a large number of people to acquire a B.Ed. degree, mostly by correspondence, after doing B.A. There are also cases of people who join a two year pre-service programme after +2 and subsequently acquire a B.A. degree through correspondence. Similarly, candidates aspiring for PGT grades invest two years to acquire a post graduate degree. This places them 6 years ahead of their TGT counterparts and 13 years ahead of their counterparts teaching at primary levels (ATG). In practice, most “private’ schools give at PGT scale to a teacher who has a few years experience in teaching. In government schools, if a post-graduate with a B.Ed. qualifies the selection test, she starts with a PGT scale. Hence, there is a sound economic basis for primary school teachers, to aspire to B.A. and B.Ed. degrees. Both these degrees are available by correspondence and hence can be pursued while teaching. The proposed B.El.Ed. programme can both fill this gap and simultaneously make an impact on the quality of primary education in Delhi, by enabling the professionalisation of primary teacher education. In the context of a very high demand for `trained, qualified teachers, there is a tendency to aspire for a combination of B.A. and B.Ed. degrees, and move up to higher grades. As a result, RETURNS FROM INVESTMENT IN EDUCATION PASS 10+ 2 2 YEAR PRE-SERVICE TRAINING 3 YEAR BA DEGREE 3 YEAR BA DEGREE PRT 1 YEAR B.Ed. 2 YEAR MA Degree 7 years ahead* 8 years ahead** START AT Rs. 1200*/Rs. 4500** TGT 2 YEAR MA Degree START AT Rs. 1400*/Rs. 5500** 6 years ahead* 5 years ahead** 1 YEAR B.Ed. PGT START AT Rs. 1640*/ Rs.6500** Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 14 Elementary Education suffers not only for lack of adequate pre-service preparation, but also a lack of motivation to Stay on. The findings of this study has to be seen in the context of the great need for primary teachers and the fact that teaching at the primary level is seen to be more of a complement to domestic roles than an independent career or profession. Perception of Primary School Teaching The perception of primary school training across all groups of respondents is as follows: 1. There seems to be an in-built hierarchy, not only by way of ascending scales of remuneration (the higher the class a teacher teaches at, the better the remuneration) but also an opportunity given to teach at higher levels with better qualifications. 2. There is a traditional justification of attributing ‘nobility’ to the teaching profession. The image of the nursery and primary teacher is seen to be ‘inferior” requiring no skills and a resort of people who prefer to teach at ‘higher’ levels of education in schools. 3. Teachers who enter teaching at nursery, primary and middle levels are clearly responding to an economic need while attempting to balance complementary domestic roles. 4. Teaching is traditionally seen as appropriate for girls/women because it is perceived to be “noble, secure, and non-threatening for unmarried girls”. Teaching is seen as “convenient” because of lesser demands on time. Teaching is also seen as an easy option to combine with various home-making roles. These two roles are sought to be balanced and hence teaching is taken to be less as a profession, more of a vocation, complementing household work. Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 15 PROFILE OF STUDY GROUPS During the course of the study, in-depth interviews were conducted with primary school teachers, heads of primary schools/sections and under-graduates studying education as a subject in B.A. (Pass). Three group discussions were conducted with students of B.Ed., DIET trainees and Nursery Teacher Trainees. The primary purpose behind the interviews and discussions were to understand the demographic and psychographic profiles of these sets of respondents. Varied patterns emerge with respect to, the motives with which different groups come into the particular course or profession; their situation in life and factors that deter them from seeking other academic and professional options as presented in Table(7). Primary School Teachers The sample Primary School Teachers belong largely to service or trading families. The primary teachers experience is that their social peers consider teaching a “noble” vocation. Within the educational system, however, they are looked down upon by other (senior) teachers. In general, they have chosen school teaching because it is “suitable for girls’; is ‘convenient” and allows “enough timing flexibility” to complement domestic responsibility, especially after marriage. Some of the teachers’ decision to become teachers has been influenced by other teachers, in their ownlin-laws’ family. Most teachers adopted their profession for economic reasons though a few were motivated to teach in schools for the satisfaction it gave them. There is a small group, especially in ‘public’ schools who are sensitive to the concerns of elementary education and for whom the economic need may not be compelling. A large number of the respondent primary school teachers have a post-graduate degre through crresponc1ence courses. Most have also done B.Ed. through correspondence. Others are either enrolled in these courses or wish to do so. All except one have been through some kind of pre- service training course. ‘Public’ school teachers seem to be more sensitive to the needs of children and their development than their counterparts in government schools who are preoccupied with the ‘image of the teacher’ in both social and economic terms. They all seem to articulate the need for changes in the present educational system, but are not able to identify and focus on specific interventions. Most teachers betray a ‘role-stereotype’ of the “authoritarian-teacher” and have a strong gender bias. They seem to have resigned themselves to the inferior social image of the primary school teacher. Professional development programmes such as “in-service training” are hence seen as ways to “move up” rather than to improve professional expertise and aid personal development. Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 16 School Administrators The headmistress/headmaster/principal/incharge(s) sample came from relatively well-to-do families. Out of the seven interviewed, all are post-graduates, three hold a B.Ed. degree, two are JBT-certificate holders, while two do not have any educational pre-service training. School administrators were not particularly interested in teaching, and held their jobs primarily for economic reasons or convenience. Overtime, they seem to have distanced themselves from teaching and are now pre-occupied with administrative matters. Undergraduate Students Undergraduate students studying education as a subject in B.A. (Pass) are largely from trading/business families. Most of them have taken this course, hoping it would help them do a B.Ed. Teaching in their view, is a respectable and ‘convenient job’ for girls. B.Ed. seems to be the only avenue for there are limited academic options (such as M.A. in Education) available. Other students are not clear of the motivation behind their choice of subject. They have taken up Education as “any other subject” to be cleared to obtain a graduation. DIET Students The DIET students have joined the course primarily for economic reasons, i.e., doing a two year “recognised” pre-service training programme with job assurance as opposed to a three-year BA with an uncertain future. These students, exhibit a rare clarity of purpose and interest in teaching at the primary level. Most of them belong to one-parent-teacher families and have come to know of DIET from, and been encouraged to join by their parents. In their peer group, their course is considered ‘unglamorous’ and even inferior to undergraduate and other professional courses. Their parents and elders deem this course as practical, appropriate and economically sound. The course increases girls’ credibility in matrimonial alliances, but down-grades it, in case of boys. This probably explains the negligible enrolment of boys. This group seems to be aware of many issues related to quality primary education (e.g. methods of teaching) and they feel positively about their siblings and friends in “better” courses (e.g. B.Ed.) consulting them on these issues. NTT Students The NTT students come from trading / business families and have chosen the course for economic reasons. Their parents have had a major role to play in their decision to join the course and immediately seek employment. Compared to DIET trainees, the attention of NTT students seemed to be on job opportunities ahead of them, rather than course content. The NTT course is their final be after having failed to get admission in DIET and JBT courses. There is a diffidence of NTT students in coming to terms with their ‘social status, especially with their peer group, but they are aware (as their parents) that an NTT certificate would fetch Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 17 them a ‘job’ relatively easier than other courses. Compared to DIET students, this group seems largely dissatisfied with their situation and had a suppressed preference for other professional courses (e.g. joining the textile I fashion design) and would opt out given the opportunity. NTT trainees are eligible to teach grades I and II in Government schools. In practice, however, they only get to teach these grades in government schools if they are graduates. ‘Public’ / private schools however, do absorb them in the early primary grades - which is another attraction for them to join the course. B.Ed. Students B.Ed. student respondents come from economically sound, mixed family backgrounds and seem to have arrived in the course after having failed to find other options after graduation. A few of them have opted for this course mainly because of “convenient, respectable, part-time ‘job’ for girls”. This minority clearly aspire to teach at higher levels in schools. An assurance of getting a job seem to draw many participants to the course. This, however, was more of a “fall back”, “safe” option than a formal career option. Many respondents, pointed out the desirability of a B.Ed. degree after marriage when domestic roles can be supplemented with a “gainful” occupation. The summary of characteristics of the sampled groups as presented in Table (7) indicates that the participants in teacher education programmes fall in two distinct categories. DIET and NTT trainees appear not to be able to invest time (and money) on doing a graduation for three years and then following through with B.Ed. (possibly through correspondence) degree. The profiles of most current primary school teachers, matches with these two groups. Current DIET trainees have a segment of economically better-off students who would be interested in the proposed B.El.Ed. programme. The NTT trainees on the other hand, may not form part of the Prospective group for the B.El.Ed. The B.Ed. and B.A. (Pass) students, follow similar career pathways in that they would like to explore other professional avenues before finally opting for a job in education. Both these groups, are not interested in entering or continuing in elementary education unless it is for lack of any alternative occupation. Both these groups, would prefer to postpone their career decisions to after graduation, and hence, would not form part of the prospective group for a B.El.Ed. programme - unless it assures them employment. The duration of the proposed B.E1.Ed. programme, its contents and future employment prospects, however, will make a significant difference to the preferences of DIET participants, students doing B.A. (Pass) and other aspirants who have not been able to qualify for the limited number of seats in the DIETs. . Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 18 TABLE(7): SUMMARY OF CHARACTERISTICS OF SAMPLED GROUPS Attribute Primary School Teachers NTT DIET B.A.(P) B.Ed. Socio- economic class Middle Class trading/service Some well to do Lower middle/ Middle Class trading/ service Lower Middle/ Middle class teaching/service Lower Middle/ Middle Class business Middle class/ Upper business service Economic compulsion (to find job as soon as possible) Balancing domestic duties and occupation Very high High Low Medium Merit (as displayed in clearing entrance exams for various professional courses) Graduates with B.Ed. through correspondence Low Medium Medium High Concern and involvement with elementary education Some wish to continue teaching children; some consider it a waste of energy without any returns, fear stagnation Medium High Low Low Circumstances of being in this course Others encouraged, like teaching helps earning while managing domestic duties Parents persuaded; Tried other options in teaching ; also interested in teaching Parents influenced; Interested in teaching young children Will help in doing B.Ed., just another course Tried other courses after graduation; B.Ed. last preferred option Source: MACESE : Feasibility Study, December 92- January 93 The most crucial factor in determining the entry of candidates into the proposed B.El.Ed. programme, is the lower present status accorded to primary education. The increase in Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 19 remuneration is high enough for students! primary school teachers to be drawn into an educational trajectory to enable them to teach at a higher level, which would give them better economic return. The lower social status of the primary school teachers in the school system is reinforced because of the lower remuneration received. If the current salary scales are not changed to equalize remunerations for primary school teachers, elementary education will continue to suffer from a lack of motivated teachers The proposed B.El.Ed. programme, will be able to attract motivated candidates, only if the above scenario changes. Otherwise, it may become instrumental in increasing the volume of primary teachers(perhaps better trained for primary levels) but not enable them to continue at primary levels of teaching because of economic disparities with other groups. These options are discussed in detail in the next chapter. Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 20 REACTIONS TO THE PROPOSED B.EL.ED. PROGRAMME Proposed B.E1.Ed. Programme The tentative features of the proposed programme have been set out as follows: • The B.El.Ed. would be an undergraduate programme leading to a professional degree. • The programme will be entitled BACHELOR OF ELEMENTARY EDUCATION (B.EL.ED.) • Students aspiring for this programme will be eligible on completion of their class XII examination. • Approximately 50 students will be admitted to the first year of the programme. • The medium of instruction will be bilingual (English/Hindi). • The total duration of the programme will be of three academic years. Its main components will be: a) Liberal Courses: Languages; Linguistics; Mathematics; Social and Natural Sciences. b) Foundations of Education: Philosophy; Psychology; Sociology; History and Economics. c) Pedagogy in teaching young children and in various subject areas. d) Art, Music and Drama in Education, Health Education and other. e) Internship in school teaching. • The B.El.Ed. graduates will be trained to teach all elementary levels (Grades I to VIII). Disposition towards B.E1.Ed. Students of elementary and nursery teacher education programmes, at the DIET and NTT think that a degree programme in elementary teacher education is much needed. Given the opportunity, they would have certainly opted for it. Most undergraduate students of education, primary school teachers and those incharge of primary schools/sections feel that such a programme will cater to a growing need and would be a sound professional option for those who really want to teach at the primary level. B.Ed. students would rather not opt for such a programme since they would not like to confine themselves to primary teaching. Besides, it would also force a career decision on them right after Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 21 school. In their opinion, the best way to cater to the present need for a good primary teacher education programme would be to offer it as an elective in the present B.Ed. programme. DIET Students DIET students offered a series of arguments in favour of the proposed B.El.Ed. programme: The present government and private system of elementary education prefers graduate trainees even if their degree is acquired through a correspondence course. • DIET Diploma holders are permitted to teach only primary classes (I-V) even though they are trained to teach across elementary grades (1-VITI). A diploma alone, does not allow them to move up the professional ladder. • A degree programme, in elementary education, is likelyto enhance the status of primary school teachers. In their opinion, such a programme would carry a status, higher than an ordinary B.A. • At present, DIET students feel they do not have an adequate group of all subjects, necessary for an integrated approach to primary teaching. A B.ELEd. programme will enable them to become conceptually clearer and is likely to maintain a link with their subject based knowledge acquired during their school education. • A degree programme, is extremely desirable for those who wish to adopt elementary teaching as a career. A professional degree programme will also accord more confidence to the teacher trainee. For want of better job opportunities (and occupational mobility) many DIET students aspire to acquire a graduate degree (by correspondence) and then a B.Ed. However, the present B.Ed. programmes do not have an adequate academic and professional input for primary level teaching. NTT Students NTT Students expressed awareness of the benefits of a degree programme. They do not necessarily aspire to move up to higher levels of teaching in school education. Belonging to the lowest rung of the hierarchy in school teaching, they have little faith in their own ability to ‘move up” to higher levels of teaching. Undergraduate B.A. (Pass) Students Many undergraduate students of education said that they would have chosen to study such a course, had there been an opportunity. Doing a B.A. course, with no professional job options does not particularly appeal to them. In their view, the system does not offer anything better. They would join a programme such as the proposed B.El.Ed. because it would equip them for a teaching ‘job’. A degree programme, they felt, will assure them of a job opportunity. Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 22 A B.El.Ed. in their view, will not only provide direction to the present education system, it will also counter the mushrooming of substandard B.Ed. programmes of correspondence. Primary School Teachers Most Primary School Teachers feel that a degree programme is more likely to enhance the status of primary school teaching. Present programmes of teacher education, do not provide an adequate foundation for primary school teaching. A degree programme of a longer duration should be able to do so. Some enthusiastic primary school teachers and undergraduate students expressed the wish to join such a professional programme even at this juncture. B.Ed. Students Students of B.Ed. are preparing to enter into middle, secondary and higher secondary levels of teaching. They, therefore, see little scope in a degree programme specialising in primary education. They are aware that the B.Ed. programme does not equip them to teach at primary levels. Since, primary teaching is not their final aspiration, they do not mind teaching at primary level with the aim to move up to higher level teaching in time. They would, therefore, opt for an elective course specialising in primary education, which is part of a B.Ed. programme. Even if a B.El.Ed. is offered after school, they would rather not opt for it because of the same reasons. In their opinion, a professional course like the B.El.Ed. after the +2 level, tends to close all options for a student. Moreover they think that, +2 level students, are not clear about what they want to do. Administrators and Decision Makers Decision makers and officials in elementary education recognise that most current primary school teachers are either trained to teach at higher levels or have not been adequately trained given the present elementary teacher education inputs and structures. They also recognise that those who are trained for primary level teaching prefer to ‘move up” because of economic benefits. They expressed the need for “trained, qualified” teachers from Delhi, as at present they have to recruit the bulk of primary teachers, trained outside Delhi. Recognising the importance of an adequate teacher education programme for elementary teaching, most point out that the present lack of primary teachers from Delhi, is because of the complete lack of teacher educators in this area. A degree programme offering professional development of elementary school teachers, in their opinion, should be of a long duration (ideally 4 years) and within a professional institute. Introducing a primary education component in an existing B.Ed. programme would be a piece-meal effort and therefore of little use. A model of longer duration, one Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 23 which offers academic options of higher education and research in elementary education, is particularly desirable. Elementary Education in their view is a specialised area and one which should be handled by trained teachers. Hence, the specific suggestion that B.El.Ed. graduates should be trained further (say through an M.El.Ed.) and recruited as DIET faculty. This demand for professional, good quality elementary teacher education programmes should be met by MACESE simultaneously with a pressure to close down existing sub-standard teacher education programmes. Research options open to B.El.Ed. graduates will also promote the development of elementary education as a discipline. These respondents felt that B.El.Ed. Graduates must also be recognised as eligible for other options that are open to general graduates as well (e.g. UPSC examinations). They must also be given a status equivalent to a B.A...B.Ed. This is an integrated teacher education programme offered by a few Regional Training Colleges where students qualifying a B.A.-B.Ed. are eligible for TGT scales. B.E1.Ed. trainees should be equipped with and given recognition to teach at both primary and middle school levels. It is clear from the response of all groups, that in spite of the financial implications of introducing a B.El.Ed. programme, it is a “felt” need that must be met. A professional degree programme would help combat the current casual approach towards elementary teaching and build a case for demanding better remuneration for teachers. Suggestions on Content The tentative content of the proposed programme, as suggested by the respondents is as follows: • Child psychology including an understanding of specific problems of children. • Teaching methodology for example, literacy and numeracy skills. • Practical training on developing teaching aids, designing activities and playway methods. Subject knowledge such as languages, history of education and Vedic education. • Educational psychology, for example, psychology of learning. • Effective teaching and communicative skills and teacher development, for example, creating uninhibited teachers who can relate to children. • Art, craft, music and physical education. • Understanding of social issues, for example, gender and value education. • Visits to rural and deprived schools. Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 24 The major emphasis suggested by DIET students was on communication skills, practical training in developing teaching aids, designing activities, developing uninhibited teachers who can relate to children and sound subject knowledge. The NTT students largely focussed on those components that directly relate to the curriculum for young children, such as games, play activities, physical education, stories and creative activities. They, in particular, mentioned the need, to be in constant contact with children, during a teacher education programme. The major emphasis of primary school teachers was teaching methodology, a sound subject knowledge and practical training in developing aids and activities including art, craft and music and an understanding of the psychology of the child. A specific emphasis on better awareness of teaching methodology was expressed by many primary school teachers. Most officials stressed concerns such as pedagogy, curriculum transaction, attitude change and development, constant contact with children, an increased pre-school component, child psychology, community involvement and health and nutrition. In their opinion, present elementary education programmes are often criticised for being dilute forms of a B.Ed. programme. The proposed programme of elementary teacher education should therefore focus on providing new inputs and a ‘perspective for elementary teaching. Suggestions on Programme Administration Students of B.A. (Pass) in education prefer that the programme be introduced in popular undergraduate colleges. Both DIET and NTT students strongly felt that the programme should be administered in a professional institute set up for the purpose. This would give professional impetus to elementary teaching and counter the casual approach it is often associated with. They felt that housing such a programme in an Institute, rather than in colleges, would enable the generation of rigour and a professional attitude in students. In colleges, they argued there would be a tendency to take the course as “just another” graduation subject and it would fall prey to the world-view of B.A. programmes, which seem to prepare students more for academic teaching jobs than for professions. Skills and Aptitudes Required for Primary Teaching All the groups regard “patience”, “physical and mental energy’ “self-control”, ability to enforce discipline, “being loving and caring” towards children as the most important skills and aptitudes required by a primary school teacher. Both teachers and primary school incharges, place patience as the most important quality necessary to teach young children. Students, however, place a minor emphasis on the aptitude and skill of ‘understanding children’. The teacher, in their view, must have enough understanding of child psychology to enable her to attend to individual children’s interests and problems, to involve them in classroom activities, to Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 25 control and discipline children and relate to them in an uninhibited and facilitative manner. Having patience is also considered necessary. That primary school teachers should be ‘role models’ for children seems to be an important quality in the opinion of students, but is not reflected in teachers’ responses. Very few teachers expressed the need to develop the skill of using teaching aids effectively. They do agree that, this is an important course component of a teacher education programme. Subject knowledge, according to them, is an important skill and aptitude. This may be a reflection of the dominant hierarchy within school education that sees subject based training as a high status job. The dominant pattern emerging from each of the group reveals that primary school teachers are likely to be successful teachers if they are loving, caring, patient, have abundant energy and are committed. Specific skills required to teach young children, such as teaching methodology, ability to design teaching aids and activities, playway methods and communication skills are recognised as important course components of the proposed B.El.Ed. None of the respondents seem to reflect an understanding of the process by which these pedagogical inputs can build teacher skills. They are inclined to believe that the ‘natural qualities’ make a good primary school teacher, especially those, that fit the ‘mother-teacher’ image best. Reactions of Delhi University College Principals Principals of six Delhi University colleges located in different parts of the city were met with the view to seek their reactions and dispositions towards the proposed B.El.Ed. Programme. The colleges contacted were: Atma Ram Sanatan Dharm College; Gargi College; Jesus and Mary College; Kirori Mal College; Lady Sri Ram College; St. Stephens College. All the principals, were extremely positive to the idea of a professional degree programme of Elementary Teacher Education. Most were in particular open to the idea of collaboration with the University Department (MACESE) on such an endeavour. Two possible models of collaboration emerged from the discussions with principals and other respondents as presented in Table (8). The options are as follows: Option 1: The undergraduate college takes on the responsibility of administering the programme in terms of student enrolment, organising course lectures and providing infrastructural facilities and available resource faculty. MACESE faculty provides the educational support for the programme in the colleges. Option 2: The undergraduate college provides available resource faculty to teach specific subject based courses as part of the programme on a visiting / guest lectureship basis. The responsibility of administration, enrolment of students, providing infrastructural facilities, Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 26 academic inputs of pedagogy and foundations of education will be undertaken by MACESE in collaboration with the University. In both cases, the entry conditions and the conduction ofajoint entrance examination will be undertaken by MACESE to maintain quality and uniformity across the programme. Sr. (Dr.) Melba, Principal, Jesus and Mary College, and Dr. Hema V. Raghavan, Principal, Gargi College, have, assured administrative and resource faculty support for the proposed programme. They are willing to consider the option of starting the programme in their respective colleges in the academic year 1993-94. TABLE (8): PROPOSED MODELS OF B.EL.ED. PROGRAMME MANAGEMENT Location Enrolment Teaching Infras- tructure Administ- ration Liberal Arts & Sciences Education Internship College College College MACESE MACESE College/ MACESE College MACESE/ University MACESE/ University College guest lecturers/ MACESE MACESE MACESE University/ MACESE University/ MACESE Source: Discussion with study respondents Most of the respondent colleges offer a wide range of courses from social sciences and the Natural/Live sciences and have fairly well-equipped departments. Wherever, a specific course is currently not offered by the college, a system of guest/visiting lectures could be arranged, to keep the additional faculty load to a minimum. Where colleges, such as Lady Sri Ram, are willing to provide resource faculty, the programme could be administered in the University, where the pedagogic and other education courses are provided by the MACESE faculty. Both these arrangements, may be experimented with in the first phase of the proposed programme, to establish the most effective institutional arrangement. Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 27 OPTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The study clearly demonstrates a high demand for elementary school teachers and, therefore, a high demand for teacher educators trained in elementary education in Delhi. It shows, in particular, the need for professionally qualified’ elementary school teachers. It has demonstrated that acquiring a diploma in teacher education is not sufficient to enable the professional development of elementary school teachers. The systemic demand for a degree qualification drives many elementary school teachers to opt for such courses through correspondence in the pursuit of occupational mobility. Thus most of the primary school teachers are B.Ed.s and yet ‘misqualified’ or under prepared for teaching at primary levels. A degree in elementary teacher education is shown to be imperative to the process of enhancing elementary school teaching to a status at par with secondary school teaching. It is only through a degree programme that both professional and academic options are possible. Pursuing higher education in the field of elementary education will give it the necessary professional impetus it requires. In this context, the real issues that need to be addressed in the design of the proposed B.El.Ed. programme are: • an “acceptable” level of quality of both primary education and teacher education in the city. • determining the level of social responsibility and minimum contribution that the Delhi University can make to the children of the Capital. It is clear, that if we have to go beyond the current rhetoric of universalization of primary education and operationalise the processes of child-centered education, the teacher-student ratio in primary schools in Delhi will have to be kept below 1:45 and gradually reduced to 1:30 over the decade. This will certainly have financial implications. In keeping with the new education policy (NPE, 86) and the stated direction of the new economic policy (NEP, 92) (to maintain current real investments in the social service sector and specifically increase investments in primary education) these Investments are more than justified. The quality of future primary school teachers will therefore depend on the quality of the teacher education programme that they have participated in. The current dissatisfaction and expressed need (across all sets of respondents) for a professional programme for primary teacher education is an expression of the: • high teacher-student ratio that places considerable stress on teachers who wish to deliver high quality primary education. Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 28 • fractional output of institutionally trained primary teachers in Delhi in comparison with the overall requirement. • limited focus of the current B.Ed. and other teacher education programmes on professional issues that are specific to primary teaching. The only pragmatic solution to these constraints is the professionalisation of primary teacher education. This may also help teachers cope with the unacceptable but real problem of managing and delivering high quality education in a classroom which has a large number of children in it. It is also clear that the scale of professional teacher education programmes in Delhi has to be expanded by an order of magnitude. The current trends, by which the bulk of the posts of primary teachers are filled by candidates who have “per force” acquired B.Ed. degrees by correspondence or come from adjoining universities in Haryana, Punjab or Uttar Pradesh is a clear indicator of the need for a B.El.Ed. programme in Delhi University. Faculty Size The projected faculty size for a professional three-year primary teacher education programme of scale in Delhi is presented in Table (9). This assumes that the programme will be undertaken and managed by a single institution (e.g. MACESE). The current sanctioned faculty size at even the most optimistic teacher educator- teacher ratio of 1:20 will be able to meet less than 5% of the total additional requirement of primary school teachers over the next decade. The recommended t3acher trainee: teacher educator ratio as stipulated by the National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE) is 1:10. TABLE(9): PROJECTED FACULTY SIZE FOR PRIMARY TEACHER EDUCATORS IN DELHI FOR THREE YEAR DEGREE PROGRAMME(1991-2001) % REQUIREMENT MET BY DELHI UNIVERSITY TEACHER EDUCATOR- TEACHER RATIO(1:10) TEACHER EDUCATOR- TEACHER RATIO(1:15) TEACHER EDUCATOR- TEACHER RATIO(1:20) 1% 5 3 3 5% 26 17 13 10% 52 35 26 25% 130 87 65 50% 260 173 130 100% 520 347 260 Source: Census of India, Planning Commission and V Education survey. Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 29 In order that the University contribution to primary education rises to a token 10%, the size of the present faculty will have to be at least doubled. To reach a target of 50% of the total requirement of primary teachers the faculty size will have to expand to between 60 and 90. The impact of a four-year professional degree programme for teachers is examined in Table (10). The total faculty size would have to be between 35 and 50 to meet 10% of the requirement of primary teachers over the decade. The faculty size would have to be increased from between 80 and 110 to meet 25% of future requirements and 175 to 230 to meet 50% of the total requirement. This is clearly an increase of upto 33% on the faculty size for a three-year programme. However, the impact of the professionalisation of the proposed programme and an increase of one year in programme length is expected to be substantial and catalyse major improvements in the quality of primary school education. The major motivational impact that a four-year programme could have is in its equivalence with a B.A.-B.Ed. This would imply an assured entry into primary school teaching at the T.G.T. scale. This would clearly draw a more highly committed and intellectually capable fraction of +2 students. TABLE(10): PROJECTED FACULTY SIZE FOR ELEMENTARY TEACHER EDUCATORS IN DELHI FOR FOUR YEAR DEGREE PROGRAMME (1991-2001) % REQUIREMENT MET BY DELHI UNIVERSITY TEACHER EDUCATOR- TEACHER RATIO(1:10) TEACHER EDUCATOR- TEACHER RATIO(1:15) TEACHER EDUCATOR- TEACHER RATIO(1:20) 1% 7 5 3 5% 35 23 17 10% 69 46 35 25% 173 116 87 50% 347 231 173 100% 693 462 347 Source: Census of India, Planning Commission and V Education survey. The growth in the size of the present faculty will have to be determined based on the graded increase in the number of primary school teachers trained at Delhi University and the availability of financial support. Given, the professional nature of the course a number of innovative financing arrangements could be investigated. Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 30 A series of options and recommendations regarding the proposed B.El.Ed. programme have been made in the subsequent section, based on the following considerations: • Duration • location and content • future linkages Option 1: Four Year Integrated Programme (B.El.Ed.) • A four year integrated programme offering a degree in elementary education will give professional impetus to teacher education as well as primary teaching. • An Institute base will be desirable. However, in view of resource constraints in terms of the current number of faculty members at MACESE, the involvement of a number of undergraduate colleges would enable the programme to expand to a large scale if this option is exercised. • This programme will be a “high choice” for those specifically interested in primary/elementary education and teacher education as a profession. • A four year integrated professional programme is likely to be accepted for the grant of a TGT scale on entry into elementary education. There is already a precedence of offering a TGT scale to products of a B.A.B.Ed. programme offered by the State Regional Training Colleges, for example at Bhopal. • This programme will offer professional as well as academic avenues for the trainees. A Masters level programme in Elementary Education (M.El.Ed.) and research options in Elementary Education (M.Phil/Ph.D.) will also have to be visualised and programmed to enable professional development. Option 2: Three Year Integrated Programme (B.E1.Ed.) • A professional three year programme in elementary teacher education will provide differntiation from an ordinary B.A. Programme. • An Institute base will be desirable. However, involving undergraduate colleges will permit the preparation of elementary school teachers on a larger scale and thus possibly cater to the demand in Delhi over the coming decade. • This programme is likely to be a ‘low choice - safe option” for many, who may nevertheless do a B.Ed. through correspondence if the problem of eligibility of a TGT or equivalent scale is not addressed at elementary school education. However, for whatever time they continue in teaching, trainees of such a programme will be more effective as primary school teachers than the present B.Eds. who are in reality ‘mis qualified’ and “unprepared” to teach primary school children. Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 31 • Considerable lobbying would be required to enable the recognition of B.El.Ed. graduates for a TOT scale on entry into elementary education. • Providing academic avenues for higher education and research will be more important than in the case of a 4 year programme because of this problem. Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 32 CONCLUSION The immediate steps that need to be taken to operationalise the proposed MACESE B.El.Ed. programme at Delhi University are: 1. Choose between the above two options. 2. In either case, the programme should be positioned such that it provides future professional and academic career options. 3. There is an immediate need to equalise the scales or at least reduce disparities between an Assistant Teacher who has a degree in elementary education and a teacher with TGT qualification. 4. Press for TGT scales for Primary school teachers prepared through the B.El.Ed. programme. To begin with, try for TGT scales in select schools such as the Navyug and Public schools. 5. After an appropriate time period, evaiuate the performance of B.El.Ed. teachers and build a case for their preferential recruitment and better salary scales. The newly recruited teachers in schools should be given continued support by MACESE faculty. 6. To begin with, set up a B.El.Ed. programme on a pilot basis in a centralised institute (MACESE) and two-four undergraduate colleges for the coming three years. This would enable the development of a graded programme to cater to large number in view of the constraints of the MACESE faculty and space 7. Entry into the B.El.Ed. programme needs to be promoted through a network of school teachers, in order to attract students who would be interested to join the profession, rather than as a “last-choice” academic option. 8. Design the criteria for admission into the programme (See Appendix III) to enable the above recommendations to be fulfilled. Ajoint admission test should be administered by MACESE. 9. It may be worthwhile to explore the possibility of offering a short-term bridge course for DIET Diploma holders, to acquire a B.El.Ed. degree, to promote the profession of elementary school teaching. Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 33 APPENDIX: IA GUIDELINE FOR IN-DEPTH INTERVIEW (Teachers/Principals) This is just a guideline and not a complete questionnaire. Hence frame your questions accordingly. I. Introduction (Note Please introduce yourself as a part of a research group doing work on education and also trying to assess the needs of elementary education by facilitating feedback from interviewee’s) A. Who you are? B. What is the purpose of your visit/interview/discussion? C. Name of the person D. Sex (Male/Female) E. Age (By observation) II. Demographic Card A. How did you arrive at choosing to teach in an elementary school? (Was it a forced decision or self chosen?) (Note : Elementary school starts from class 1 to class 5) B. What are your educational qualifications? (From school onwards - Type of school etc.) C. When did you start teaching? (After what qualification and Year) and when did you get into teaching elementary school children? D. How would you describe your social background? (e.g. What do your parents do?) E. Are you married? If yes, then what work is your spouse involved in? F. What do you aspire to become? (Ambitions in life) Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 34 IV. Career Card A. What are your present career prospects? What is the present salary scale? What is the present increment system? What is your career path? What are the professional qualifications required for desired professional development? B. Does the present system offer any prospects for professional development? III. Psychographic Card (Note: Be sensitive towards picking up key points) A. Do you feel that any specific aptitude is required to teach elementary school children? If yes, then what are those? B. Which class would you like to teach and why? Which class do you teach? Have you ever taught higher classes? How? C. What do you think your colleagues feel about the training they have had? D. What do they think are the professional development opportunities available? E. Does your job command respect/is held in esteem? • by your family? • your friends/peers? • If they feel negatively, then, what do you feel that they (family members, friends and peer) think that their feeling should be about your job? F. What is your perception about the present educational system as a whole, and more specifically feelings on elementary education? (the overall environment) G. How economically rewarding is elementary education as a profession? H. Is there any challenge or satisfaction in this profession? Please specify? I. . Do you think that any modification/improvement is required in the present elementary education system? How do you think this should be undertaken? Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 35 • If yes, then what are these and how relevant are they? • If not, then do you personally look for any such opportunities? C. What do you feel about the existing in-service training programme and other academic options? D. What are the possibilities of developing teaching aids? What are the prerequisites for this? E. Have you had any training? Where? Do you consider this to be useful? F. How relevant are these? What kind of training do you think should be given? V. What do you think a course like B.El.Ed. can do? Does this cater to the present need? (Please give brief introduction about B.El.Ed. course before asking this question) A. What should be the contents of this course? Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 36 APPENDIX: lB GUIDELINE FOR IN-DEPTH INTERVIEW (U.G. Students of Education) This is just a guideline and not a complete questionnaire. Hence frame your questions accordingly. I. Introduction (Note : Please introduce yourself as a part of a research group doing work on education and also trying to assess the needs of elementary education by facilitating feedback from interviewee’s) A. Who you are? B. What is the purpose of your visit/interview/discussion? C. Name of the person D. Sex (Male/Female) E. Age (By observation) II. Demographic Card A. How did you arrive at choosing education as a subject? (Was it a forced decision or self chosen?) B. What are your educational qualifications? (From school onwards - Type of school etc.) C. How would you describe your social background? (e.g. What do your parents do?) D. What would you want to do after completing this course? E. What do you aspire to become? (Ambitions in life) III. Psychographic Card (Note: Be sensitive towards picking up key points) A. Do you like teaching? (Reasons for both positive and negative answers) Would you like to take up teaching as a career? At what level? B. If you prefer to take up school teaching, which type of schools would you prefer to teach in? Which age-group of children would you like to teach and Why? C. Do you feel that any specific aptitude is required to teach elementary level (1st to 8th classes)? If yes, then what are those? If no, then why not? Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 37 D. How do your family members, friends and peers feel about your selecting education as a subject? • If negatively, then, what do you think that their family members, friends and peer) feel should be done about this? E. What is your perception about the present educational system as a whole, and more specifically feelings on elementary education? (the overall environment) F. How economically rewarding is elementary education as a profession? G. Is there any challenge or satisfaction in this profession? What are these? H. Do you think that any modification/improvement is required in the present elementary education system? How do you think this should be undertaken? IV. Career Card A. What are your career paths? What are your present career prospects and how can you go about achieving them? B. Does the present system offer any prospects for professional development? • If yes, then what are these and how relevant are they? • If not, then do you personally look for any such opportunities? C. What do you feel about the existing teacher education programmes and other academic options available to students of Education? V. What do you think a course like B.El.Ed. can do? Does this cater to the present need? (Please give brief introduction about B.El.Ed. course before asking this question) A. What should be the contents of this course? B. Given the choice of this course after 12th would you have chosen it? (Reasons for positive or negative answers?) C. How does the name B.El.Ed. i.e. Bachelor of Elementary Education sound to you? Would you like to suggest some other name? Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 38 APPENDIX: IC GUIDELINE FOR IN-DEPTH INTERVIEW (Govt. Officials/Decision Makers) This is just a guideline and not a complete questionnaire. Hence frame your questions accordingly. I. Introduction (Note : Please introduce yourself as a part of a research group doing work on education and also trying to assess the needs of elementary education by facilitating feedback from interviewee’s) A. Who you are? A. What is the purpose of your visit/interview/discussion? B. Name of the person C. Designation D. Institution/Deptt. E. Age (By observation) III. Demographic Card A. Area and scope of work (relevant to elementary education) B. What are the present schemes for elementary educational (in detail)? C. Factual data about --Teachers at different levels --Institutions catering to the training of teachers --What are the present demand gaps --How do you plan to fill this D. What do you feel about the present system of elementary education? Does this need any king of modificatioin /improvement? What can you suggest? E. Do you feel that more emphasis needs to be given to elementary education? What are your views about this? F. Is there any difference between teacher education programmes for primary, secondary school teachers and High school teachers (preservice)? G. What scope is presently available for the professional development of elementary school teachers? H. What institutes (e.g. JBT/DIET/etc.) are presently available for preservice and in-service school teachers? How adequate are they? Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 39 I. Do you see any gaps in training programmes for elementary school teachers? If so, how can they be bridged? J. What kind of changes do you suggest in the present system and at what level? K. Do you think that a course like B.El.Ed. can bridge the present gaps and stand above or does it need to be a part of other available programmes ? What in your opinion should be the course components of such a programme? L. Could you give us your estimate for the demand for Elementary School teachers (Primary and Upper Primary)? M. What are the financial implications of starting such a programme? Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 40 APPENDIX: II A ADMINISTRATIVE DECISION MAKERS INTERVIEWED 1. Professor J.S. Rajput, Educational Advisor, Elementary Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, New Delhi. 2. Professor A.K. Sharma, Joint Director, NCERT, New Delhi. 3. Dr. G.L. Arora, Director, SCERT, New Delhi. 4. Dr. R. Murlidharan, Head, Department of Pre School and Elementary Education, NCERT, New Delhi. 5. Shri Shakti Sinha, Director, Directorate of Education, Delhi Administration, Delhi. 6. Dr. N. Siddiqi, Ex-Principal, DIET, Rajinder Nagar, Delhi. 7. Dr. Shakti Kapoor, Principal, DIET, Moti Bagh, New Delhi. 8. Shri S.R. Arya, Commissioner-cum-Secretary (Education), Delhi Administration. 9. Shri Mathur, Director, Education, New Delhi Municipal Corporation, Delhi. 10. Shri Purushotam Goyal, Chairman, Delhi Metropolitan Council, New Delhi. 11. Ms. S. Swatantra Bala,AEO, Research and Extension, Municipal Corporation of Delhi, Delhi. Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 41 APPENDIX: II B LIST OF PRINCIPALS OF COLLEGES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF DELHI, INTERVIEWED 1. Dr. Arora, Acting Principal, Atma Ram Sanatan Dharm College, Dhaula Kuan, New Delhi - 110 021. 2. Dr. Hema V. Raghavan, Principal, Gargi College, Sin Fort Road, New Delhi - 110 049. 3. Rev. Sr. (Dr.) Melba, Principal, Jesus and Mary College, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi - 110 021. 4. Dr. Kadian, Principal, Kirori Mal College, University of Delhi, North Campus, Delhi - 110 007. 5. Dr. Meenakshi Gopinath, Principal, Lady Sri Ram College, Lajpat Nagar, New Delhi - 110 024. 6. Dr. Anil Wilson, Principal, St. Stephens College, University of Delhi, North Campus, Delhi-110 007. Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 42 APPENDIX: III ENTRY LEVEL CONDITIONS FOR ADMISSION INTO THE PROPOSED B.E1.Ed. PROGRAMME The following criteria could be used for setting the entry level conditions for admission into the proposed programme: 1. Proficiency of knowledge, skills and aptitude Short-listing could be done at two levels : Screening applications on the basis of stipulated eligibility criteria in class 12 examination; and comprehension, expression and seriousness of the pursuit of the profession. Assessment using a written objective test on the basis of reasoning skills; problem solving skills and aptitude 2. Attitudes and Interest The final selection could be made using a situational test of observing candidates in real situations of dealing with children, for example in the classroom, playfield. Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 43 APPENDIX: IV A TENTATIVE CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK FOR THE PROPOSED B.E1.Ed. PROGRAMME Courses should particularly focus on: • Perspective on child development - Understanding children, how they think and learn and their education and health status. • Perspective on education - Major Indian and Western thoughts, history, philosophy, sociology and Indian Policy. • Pedagogical perspectives - Early literacy and numeracy and learning processes. • Subject knowledge - Language/linguistics, social sciences, natural and life sciences and mathematics. • Human relationships and communication skills. • Theatre and the arts - Drama, music, dance and craft in education. • School management and organisation - Curriculum planning and coordination, classroom management. • Practicum - Obseving children, keeping records and internship in teaching. Duration and Structure The programme should be spread over six or eight semesters for three or four years as the case may be 18-25 courses could be covered in all. The first four semesters could focus on exposing students to major knowledge areas of the offered courses. The final year could be spent on consolidating the acquired knowledge and building connections with classroom teaching. Each semester should have a practicum. Students in the first few semesters should be given opportunities to observe children in various settings, experience in record- keeping and interpretive analysis. This should be followed by project work in curriculum design and evaluation. The final year practicum should focus on classroom teaching and management. A tutor system could be evolved to help each student to build connections between observations, theory and classroom teaching. Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 44 A Committee, under the Chairpersonship of Professor Krishna Kumar, appointed by Professor Nargis Panchapakesan, Head, Department of Education, Delhi University, is already deliberating on the curriculum framework for the proposed programme. Somnath Sen, is an economist with a post-graduate degree in management from IRMA. Ranjan Verma, has considerable professional experience in both private and voluntary sectors in social and environmental research and rural marketing. Feasibility Study for a Degree Programme in Elementary Teacher Education MACESE, CIE, Delhi University 45